Modern Astronomical Evidence for the Star of Bethlehem

from Biblica.

Matthew 2:1-2       The Magi Visit the Messiah

1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem     2 and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.”

In Matthew’s account of the story of the magi, the ‘guidance’ of a star is mentioned four times (Matthew2:2, 7, 9, 10). Its purpose in terms of the narrative is clear–to guide the wise men to the newborn King. But what scientific validity is there for such a phenomenon?

Given that the magi were almost certainly astrologers, the kind of phenomena familiar to them would have included comets, supernova (though not the term) and a conjunction of  planets, all of which are consistent with modern scientific observation. While open to modern refinement, the definition of a comet  given by the Roman poet Virgil in the Aenid is still valid; „a star leading a meteor flew with much light”. Likewise, records of the conjuction of planets were carefully kept; there was a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 7 B.C. and of Jupiter and Venus in 6 B.C.

The modern term supernova, a star that suddenly increases in size and brilliance then fades away, may not occur in ancient documentation, but this does not mean the phenomenon was unknown.

Where modern science would differ is in the interpretation held among the ancients. What was important to the astrologer was not only to notice the phenomena, but to search for their meaning. They would have concurred with the statement of Tacitus in his Annals that „the general belief is that a comet means a change of emperor” and that the conjunction of planets is associated with the birth of a king. In fact, a common role for such wise men was to discern the rise of a new king.

If we accept some element of historicity in Matthew’s account, then any number of combinations is possible and consistent with modern astronomical understanding. The star first sighted by the wise men (Matthew 2:2) could be explained as a supernova. Then the „star that  they had seen at its rising” might be a comet that „stopped over the place where the child was”. (Matthew 2:9) Alternately, it could have been a reflection from a planetary conjunction; two of which occurred in 7 B.C. and 6 B.C.– the most likely years of Jesus’ birth.

The occurrence of these phenomena is plausible in terms of modern astronomy, and their coincidence of time and place is not impossible. At some point, it comes down to a belief that it was God who guided the wise men by utilizing the ordinary processes of creation. The event, therefore, is not a violation of nature, nor a contradiction of modern science, but the way in which nature allows for such coincidences to occur. Ultimately, their importance for the Gospel is that God uses them to witness to the truth of Jesus’ identity on behalf of the gentile world.

3 comentarii (+add yours?)

  1. Trackback: Creation Astronomy – Dr. Jason Lisle on Origins « agnus dei – english + romanian blog
  2. Boxing Pythagoras
    dec. 23, 2014 @ 07:24:41

    Even if we assume that there were naturalistic explanations for the star(s) referenced in Matthew, how could a conjunction of planets or a comet lead people to a specific house? What does it mean for a comet to „stop over the place where the child was?”

    • rodi
      dec. 23, 2014 @ 13:46:27

      In the book of Matthew, the narration starts with the magi going to King Herod and telling him they saw the star appear in the area. King Herod was in Jerusalem, and according to Matthew, Herod’s priests searched for the story of a Messiah and pointed to the prophesies of the Old Testament, which name Bethlehem as the birth place of the Messiah. Then, according to Matthew, the magi left Herod and saw the star again. I am assuming this is the verse you are referring to: Matthew 2:8 – 9 After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was.

      A layman’s reading would suggest that place means house, however, I have heard some say that the phrase „stop over the place where the child was” could mean that it was over Bethlehem.
      I like to point people to this interesting article about 2 astronomers’ research into the Star of Bethlehem phenomenon. –
      It is something to consider about this mysterious event.

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