Jan Hus, Ars pe rug – John Huss, Story of a Martyr

VIDEO by Christian Sermons

CINE A FOST JAN HUS

Jan Hus (1369 -1415) a fost un teolog reformator ceh, născut la Husinec, Boemia, ars pe rug pentru ideile sale anti-papale. Prin scrierile sale, Jan Hus a contribuit mult la dezvoltarea limbii cehe literare.

Studii și activitate

jan_husTatăl lui Jan Hus a fost cărăuș. Cu toate că provine dintr-o familie modestă, Jan Hus urmează Școala Latină in Prahatice și studiază din anul 1386 în Praga la Universitatea Karl, obținând la absolvirea studiului gradul de „Magister Artium”. Ca profesor, a predat limba cehă literară și a stabilit reguli de scriere.

Prin intermediul lui Hieronymus din Praga, Jan Hus a cunoscut operele profesorului de teologie din Oxford, John Wycliff, de care a fost influențat. Nobili cehi după căsătoria sorei regelui Wenzel, Ana de Bohemia, cu Richard al II-lea al Angliei în (1382) aduc la Praga opere de-a lui John Wycliff,acestea fiind opere teologice și o critică la adresa clerului din Anglia care era solicitat să renunțe la bogăția lumească și la puterea politică, reîntorcându-se la viața modestă și morală. Jan Hus studiază teologia în 1400 și devine preot în 1401, ajungând decanul Facultății de Filozofie. În 1402 devine profesor cu funcția de rector la Universitatea din Praga unde a predat teologie și filozofie 1409 – 1410. Jan Hus a reușit să-l convingă pe regele Wenzel să aprobe Decretul Kuttenberg care admite majoritatea cehilor la Universitatea Karl (Carol). Astfel, prin acest decret se întărea poziția cehă în raport cu germanii la Universitatea din Praga.

Influența sa ca preot și predicator

Din 1402 predicile lui în Capela Betlehem din Praga sunt în limba cehă, la fel și cântecele corale din timpul slujbei. Jan Hus devine foarte popular, fiind și preotul reginei Sophie. Hus a predicat o viață severă, morală și plină de virtuozitate, condamnând ușurința, luxul și moda. Aceste opinii au determinat nemulțumirea printre meseriașii și negustorii care trăiau de pe urma acestor excese.

Înfluențat de tezele lui Wyclif, Jan Hus critică lăcomia și viața de desfrâu a clerului, proprietățile și avuțiile lumești ale bisericii. A luptat neobosit și înflăcărat pentru reformarea bisericii, a militat pentru libertatea gândirii, și introducerea limbii cehe în slujbele bisericești, recunoscând numai Biblia ca o autoritate supremă în credința creștină. Jan Hus nu a acceptat teza conform căreia Papa ” nu greșește”.

Aflând de conținutul predicilor lui, în anul 1408 episcopul din Praga îi suspendă dreptul de a predica și îi interzice slujbele religioase. Jan Hus nu respectă aceste interdicții iar în predicile sale critică mai departe Papa și clerul bisericesc, reușind într-un timp scurt să obțină simpatia majorității populației din Boemia.

Pentru a obține sprijin, Episcopul din Praga îl recunoaște pe papa Alexandru al V-lea și astfel obține o „Bulă papală” (9 mai 1410) prin care se pretinde să fie înmânate lucrările lui Wyclif episcopului și sunt înterzise propagarea și predicile în afara bisericii. Din ordinul episcopului, sunt arse peste 200 din manuscrisele lui Wyclif. Jan Hus este denunțat Romei. Reprezentanți a lui Hus la Roma au încercat zadarnic să apere ideilor sale.

În 1410 Papa Ioan al XXIII-lea îl excomunică pe Jan Hus iar în 1411 el este alungat din Praga, ceea ce a provocat nemulțumiri și revolte în oraș. Prin protejarea lui de către rege și datorită revoltelor populare, Jan Hus poate predica încă un an. El condamnă cruciadele și bula papală prin care iertarea păcatelor se realiza plătind bani bisericii. În cele din urmă, Jan Hus este nevoit să se refugieze în afara orașului.

Jan Hus și sentimentul național

În acel timp Boemia aparținea ca „Territorium” de Sfântul Imperiu Romano-Catolic și avea o populație numeroasă (majoritară) de naționalitate cehă. Predicile lui Jan Hus au fost interpretate drept atacuri la adresa clerului german în special și a germanilor în general. Tensiunea dintre naționalitățile germane și cehe se amplifică, când 1000 de studenți și mulți profesori germani părăsesc Praga după aprobarea în 1409 a „Decretului Kuttenberg” și stabilesc „Universitatea Leipzig”, ceea ce a lezat prestigiul Universității din Praga, renumită în Europa din acea perioadă. Deoarece Hus își ținea predicile reformatoare bisericești în strânsă legătură cu revendicări naționale cehe, asta i-a făcut mulți dușmani atât în rândurile elitei politice germane cât și la Scaunul Papal. Astfel că în 1411, deși era rector la Universitatea Pragheză, Jan Hus este excomunicat de (Contra-)Papa Johannes al XXIII-lea și nevoit să fugă din Praga.

Jan Hus s-a refugiat (1412-1414) în Ziegenburg în Boemia de sud și în cetatea Krakovec din Boemia centrală. În perioada refugiului său, Jan Hus a scris mai multe lucrări în limba cehă, realizând o limbă literară cehă, contribuind la traducerea Bibliei și a Vechiului Testament (1413) în lucrarea Postila. Atunci când Papa Ioan al XXIII-lea pornește o nouă cruciadă împotriva orașului Neapole și promite iertarea păcatelor celor care participă la această cruciadă, Jan Hus critică această activitate iar la Praga izbucnesc revolte noi. Jan Hus străbate Boemia ca predicator iar mase mari de cehi i se alătură. Concret Hus revendica separarea bisericii cehe de biserica Regatului German (în Sf.Imp.R.-Cat. era și un rege german alături de împărat) și drepturi mai largi în folosirea limbii cehe.

Consiliul din Konstanz

Locul de detenție în Konstanz- Jan Hus in anul 1414

Jan Hus în fața Consiliului din Konstanz

Arderea pe rug a lui Jan Hus (Spiezer Chronik, 1485)

În 1413, Jan Hus scrie lucrarea De Ecclesia (Despre Biserică), prin care își exprimă părerea sa despre ierarhia bisericească. Jan Hus susține că numai Isus poate să fie călăuzitor și conducător în credință. Această afirmație este citată de acuzatorii lui la Konstanz (pe malul lacului Boden) din (Germania și Elveția), la procesul lui Jan Hus. Regele german Sigismund i-a asigurat lui Jan Hus drum liber la dus și întors, promisiune atestată la 18 octombrie 1414 printr-o scrisoare oficială. Jan Hus s-a hotărât să-și prezinte ideile sale în fața reprezentanților clerului și să se apere singur. La data de 3 noiembrie 1414, Jan Hus sosește în Konstanz unde este imediat arestat, primind locuința unui prelat bisericesc. După arestare, Regele Sigismund a amenințat că părăsește consiliul și a fost eliberat din funcția sa după ce a susținut că afirmațiile lui Jan Hus sunt în competența bisericească. Jan Hus a fost încarcerat în cetatea Gottlieben pe Rin a episcopului din Konstanz, unde a fost înfometat și legat în lanțuri la un perete în apropierea gropii cu fecale. La 4 mai 1415 Consiliul îl excomunică John Wyclif, lucrările sale au fost arse; dat fiind că Wyclif a murit 30 de ani în urmă, osemintele lui sunt condamnate să fie arse. Jan Hus este adus la mânăstirea franciscană pe 5 iunie 1415 unde va petrece ultimele sale săptămâni de viață. Jan Hus a fost dus la Refektorium unde este interogat (5 – 8 iunie 1415). Jan Hus are ocazia să-si apere ideile și se pretinde numai retragerea și dezmințirea a tuturor afirmațiilor sale eretice, ceea ce el refuză în mod repetat. La 6 iulie 1415 Jan Hus este condamnat de Consiliu drept eretic cu arderea pe rug pentru afirmațiile sale.

La aceași dată Jan Hus este ars pe rug împreună cu manuscriptele sale, cenușa sa fiind împrăștiată în Rin. Astăzi, o piatră funerară amintește locul execuției. Execuția lui Jan Hus s-a făcut sub conducerea lui Friedrich I. (Brandenburg), mai târziu Prinț von Brandenburg, strămoșul regilor prusaci din familia Hohenzollern. În scrisoarea lui de rămas bun către prieteni, Jan Hus scrie: „Mă bucură faptul că totuși a trebuit să citească cărțile mele și că, în speranța că vor găsi ceva necurat, le-au citit mai sârguincios ca și Sfânta Scriptură.”

Execuția lui Hus și prigoana declanșată împotriva adepților săi a fost una din cauzele directe ale declanșării războaielor Husite(1419 – 1436).

WIKIPEDIA

Reclame

A Man Named Martin Luther

a-man-named-martin FOTO www.lhmmen.com

A Man Named Martin Luther

Lutheran Hour Ministries (2015) – In this five-session Bible study, Luther’s life and times are examined through the lens of history, religion and theology. Expanding on commentary from Rev. Gregory Seltz, Speaker for The Lutheran Hour, numerous scholars add their expertise and perspective to render an illuminating portrait of the life of this extraordinary human being. To see this video in parts:https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list…

The influence and impact of Luther’s life is the stuff of serious study. As a forlorn sinner feeling lost and desperate before a stern and exacting Judge, Luther desponded of all hope for eternity. But as one who came to cling to the Spirit-delivered truths of justification by faith and the liberty believers experience by God’s grace, he rebounded to become a triumphant ambassador for the Gospel.

The details of Luther’s life – his childhood with his parents Hans and Margaret, his university pursuits, his decision to become a monk, his protestation of Catholic practices, his voluminous and erudite scholastic output, his life in hiding, and his roles as husband and father – are all considered in this study. A Man Named Martin is a fresh and explorative look at an individual who, down through the centuries, has increased in importance and vitality to the Christian church.

To this day, Luther’s staunch faith and the extent of his outreach, remain a standard for Christ-centered living to believers in the 21st-century.

Among the scholars and pastors featured in this documentary are Mary Jane Haemig, Joel Biermann, Gregory Seltz, Ken Schurb, Paul Maier, Robert Kolb, Daniel Preus.

A Man Named Martin Luther – The Moment

A Man Named Martin: The Moment examines the errant teachings and wayward traditions of the Late Medieval Church that eventually sparked the Protestant Reformation, a theological overhaul set in motion most notably by Martin Luther’s nailing of the 95 Theses to the church door at Wittenberg.

As a follow-up Bible study to 2015’s A Man Named Martin-Part 1: The Man, this three-session Bible study takes a close look at the widespread teachings of the late Medieval Church that were superfluous to the Bible or not scripturally grounded. Among them were purgatory, penance, celibacy, prayers for the dead, transubstantiation, the treasury of merits of Christ, devotion to Mary and the rosary, the institution of the papacy, and the one most often linked to the Reformation: the sale of indulgences.

Joining forces in examining these aberrant teachings and the role Martin Luther had in debating and, ultimately, rejecting them is a cast of scholars, professional church workers, and pastors. Here Dr. Paul Maier, Dr. Ken Schurb, Dr. John Nunes, Dr. Joel Lampe, Dr. Susan Mobley, Dr. Joel Biermann, and others, along with The Lutheran Hour Speaker and host Dr. Gregory Seltz, add insight and expertise to this fascinating period in the life of Martin Luther. To watch this video in parts:https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list…

Related:
A Man Named Martin: Session 1:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list…

Articles about the REFORMATION –

  • LUTHER (film)
  • The impact of the printing press on the Reformation, the history of the Bible and the emergence of the Puritans by Gavin Finley

A Former Catholic Priest Speaks: Catholic Mysticism and its Influences on Christians

A Former Catholic Priest Speaks: Catholic Mysticism

and its Influences on Christians

RĂSPUNSUL PREȘEDINTELUI IOHANNIS PENTRU PASTORUL NELU CHIRIȚĂ!

Pastorul Nelu Chirita ii pune la dispozitie presedintelui Iohannis „o analiză a greșelilor națiunii noastre din punct de vedere spiritual”…..

DREPTATE ÎN DRAGOSTE

Dintr-o inimă plină de durere și compasiune pentru națiunea română, pastorul Nelu Chiriță se hotărăște să aștearnă pe hârtie tot ce vede și-l îndurerează despre poporul român, dar și soluția pentru a ieși din această situație degradantă în care a ajuns această țară, așa zis creștină.

Citind această carte nu pot să zic nimic altceva decât că-i dau dreptate la tot ceea ce a scris și să fiu de acord cu adevărul enunțat, pe cât de trist, tot atât de real, privitor la ceea ce se întâmplă cu poporul român.

Fratele Nelu, în durerea și râvna lui pentru a atrage atenția câtor mai mulți oameni și de a fi cât mai convingător și concret în acțiunea lui față de națiunea română, a donat această carte la sute de pastori și slujitori ai Evangheliei din România, ca astfel și ei la rândul lor să conștientizeze, cât mai mulți din ei, starea…

Vezi articolul original 661 de cuvinte mai mult

Pavel Rivis Tipei – Inceputurile Bisericii Penticostale in Romania

Biserica Betania Paulis

Biserica Betania Paulis

In caz ca nu ati vizionat acest video cand l-am postat prima data:

Mod inedit in consilierea divortului – Locul din Romania unde nimeni nu a divortat timp de 300 de ani

Biertan, jud. Sibiu Photo credit turism.gov.ro

Biertanul este o localitate situată în Podișul Transilvaniei, la distanțe egale de Mediaș și Sighișoara. De-a lungul istoriei a fost un important centru viticol și meșteșugăresc, caracteristici pe care le păstrează și azi.

Photo credit ro.wikipedia.org

Bineinteles, arhicunoscuta Biserica fortificata este principalul obiectiv turistic din localitate si se afla pe o colina acoperita cu vita de vie si paduri (din motive de aparare) din centrul Biertanului. Acest ansamblu are o valoare imensa, atat din punct de vedere istoric, cat si religios, estetic si arhitectural. Este construita in stil gotic tarziu cu elemente specifice Renasterii, iar din 1993 a fost inclusa in Patrimoniul UNESCO. Biserica cu trei nave este constructia centrala a ansamblului. Aici se pot observa si acum frescele ramase din secolul XVI. Dupa cum am mai mentionat, este una dintre cele mai bine conservate biserici fortificate din cele 300 care au fost ridicate intre secolele XV-XVI in Transilvania.

Un lucru inedit il constituie turnul sau bastionul inchisoare care avea un rol foarte interesant si folositor pentru societatea traditionala din acele vremuri. Aici era o cameră mica cu un singur pat, o singura farfurie, un singur tacam si o singura cana unde erau inchise perechile care doreau sa divorteze timp de 2 saptamani, timp in care cei doi trebuiau sa imparta totul, astfel avand timpul si locul perfect pentru a se impaca. Se zice ca in aproape 300 de ani, toti care au ajuns in aceasta camera din cauza ca doreau sa divorteze s-au impacat si au ramas impreuna. Si in prezent aceasta camaruta se poate vizita.

Sursa: Obiectiv.info via Afirmativ.com

CITESTE mai MULT aici –

 

Church History Literacy – Chapter 15: Augustine and the Fall of the Roman Empire

Biblical Literacy Class recorded 05-24-2015. Resources: http://lessons.biblical-literacy.org/…
More info on Biblical Literacy Class: http://biblical-literacy.org/

VIDEO by fleetwd1

A Lamp In The Dark – The Untold History Of The Bible

A Lamp In The Dark –

The Untold History Of The Bible

This ground-breaking documentary is also filled with rich visual graphics and dramatic re-enactments of key historic events.

1) The history of the early Church, with the warnings from Jesus and the Apostles about „grievous wolves” and apostasy.
2) How the Inquisition began for the purpose of silencing Christians and outlawing the Bible.
3) The Bible translations of John Wycliffe and William Tyndale, the Great Bible, the Geneva Bible, and finally the King James Version.
4) The Protestant Reformation and the reasons behind it.
5) Key doctrines confronted by the Reformers (i.e. Indulgences, Inspiration of Scripture, Salvation, Transubstantiation, Veneration of Mary, and Papal claims of authority).
6) The Counter Reformation which began with the founding of the Jesuit Order in 1540.
7) The Vatican’s involvement with the Critical Text and their influence over world-wide biblical translation in the 20th century.

Tares Among The Wheat

(Sequel to „A Lamp in the Dark”)

The sequel to „A Lamp in the Dark”.

Church History Literacy – Chapter 2: 1 Clement

Biblical Literacy Class recorded 01-11-2015. Resources: http://lessons.biblical-literacy.org/…
More info on Biblical Literacy Class: http://biblical-literacy.org/

VIDEO by fleetwd1

Church History Literacy – Chapter 1: Setting the Stage

Biblical Literacy Class recorded 01-04-2015. Resources: http://lessons.biblical-literacy.org/…
More info on Biblical Literacy Class: http://biblical-literacy.org/

VIDEO by fleetwd1

Influenta pelerinilor si a Reformei in formarea Americii

Pelerinii ajunsi pe pamantul American Photo credit biblescripture.net

Ce convingeri ar putea determina familiile de pelerini să înfrunte moartea și incertitudinea într-o lume nouă și ciudată, astfel încât să-și poată exprima credința? Va trebui să călătorești cu 500 de ani în urmă într-o Europă pregătită pentru o revoluție sau pentru ceea ce urma să fie o reformă de proporții mari.
Povestea Americii este povestea Reformei.

”Revolta protestantă” este o serie de emisiuni care prezintă toate locurile nașterii Reformei și urmărește creșterea ei atât în Lumea Nouă, cât și în Lumea Veche. A început în Germania, unde Martin Luther spunea că mântuirea vine numai prin credință și că oamenii nu aveau nevoie de preoți sau de episcopi pentru a primi mântuirea. Mântuirea vine direct de la Dumnezeu.

”Dorința tuturor participanților la Reformă era să facă Scriptura accesibilă pentru toată lumea”, a afirmat dr. Carl R. Trueman, profesor.

Pelerinii din Plymouth, Massachusetts oferă o imagine clară cu privire la noul mod de a gândi al Reformei.

”Nu avem nevoie de un rege sau de un preot care să vorbească cu Dumnezeu în locul nostru. Ne descurcăm singuri”, a afirmat Leo Martin, actor.

Martin Luther a tradus Biblia într-un limbaj obișnuit. Datorită presei tipografice a lui Gutenberg, oamenii puteau să descopere singuri adevărurile Bibliei.

”Bineînțeles că a fost adevărat că din momentul în care o persoană începe să citească Biblia, vor apărea interpretări diferite. Aceste interpretări diferite dau naștere unor mișcări diferite”, a afirmat dr. Peter A. Lillback, Seminarul Teologic Westminster.

O biblie adusa pe corabia Mayfloer din Anglia in America de Pelerini Photo credit www.manifoldgreatness.org

Odată cu răspândirea acestor noi doctrine și biserici a avut loc și răspândirea războaielor religioase din Europa. După multă vărsare de sânge, regii și liderii au venit cu o soluție.

”’Cuius regio, eius religio” înseamnă ”Cine conduce această regiune, religia acestuia va determina religia”’, a explicat dr. Carl R. Trueman, profesor.

În Anglia, lucrul acesta înseamna că cei care se aflau în afara Bisericii Anglicane erau priviți ca disidenți periculoși. Aici erau incluși și pelerinii a căror credință puternică în libertatea dată de Dumnezeu i-a determinat să plece din Anglia și să formeze o nouă societate în Lumea Nouă. Pastorul Eddie Hyatt scrie despre lucrul acesta în ”America’s Revival Heritage”.

”Aceștia au fugit de persecuția din Lumea Veche, dar au venit în America cu viziunea de a vedea o reformă a creștinismului care să poată fi implementată în Lumea Nouă”, a afirmat Eddie Hyatt, pastor.
Paul Jehle interpretează rolul unui pelerin:

”În istoria omenirii nimeni nu a avut libertatea să formeze o societate în pustie. Nici măcar nu au avut un rege care să-i supravegheze și să le spună ce și cum să facă.”

După ce au suferit sub conducerea regelui englez, pelerinii au crezut că este necesar să formeze o societate liberă.

”Se temeau, erau dezgustați de oricine deținea o anumită putere neverificată, nepotrivită asupra cetățenilor”, a afirmat David Hall, pastor Biserica Prezbiteriană Midway.

Pentru o alternativă, ei s-au întors la Biblie. Au descoperit că Dumnezeu nu a oferit întotdeauna puterea unui singur individ sub forma unei ierarhii, ci le-a oferit-o unor reprezentanți care erau aleși.

Acest lucru a devenit piesa de rezistență a Convenției Mayflower și le-a permis să formeze o societate construită în jurul pieței libere și a unui individualism solid.

”Toți suntem egali în ochii lui Dumnezeu. Suntem creați după chipul Său. Dacă acest lucru este adevărat, atunci nimeni nu are dreptul să fie deasupra altcuiva”, a afirmat Leo Martin, actor.

Aceștia au schimbat ordinea guvernării. Aceștia se așteptau ca liderii lor să nu mai fie stăpâni peste oameni, ci să fie slujitorii lor.

”Pelerinii se gândeau că dacă Dumnezeu consideră că toți suntem valoroși și noi ar trebui să credem același lucru. De aici a luat naștere autoconducerea. Nu regele, ci oamenii ar trebui să conducă”, a afirmat Leo Martin, actor.

”De aici a luat naștere impulsul, principiile după care s-a desfășurat Revoluția Americană”, a afirmat dr. Paul Jehle.

”Părinții fondatori au luat aceste principii și au scris Declarația și Constituția bazându-se pe aceste principii creștine”, a afirmat Leo Martin, actor.

Această poveste este o poveste pe care trebuie să o prețuim și să continuăm să o sărbătorim. Libertatea încă este importantă.

Un grup de creștini au pregătit scena pentru nașterea celei mai libere, prospere și mai spirituale națiuni de pe pământ. Totul se baza pe principii biblice.

Libertatea este povestea Evangheliei: ”Deci dacă Fiul vă face slobozi, veţi fi cu adevărat slobozi. Rămâneţi tari în libertatea pe care Hristos ne-a oferit-o.”

Stire difuzata in Mapamond crestin 543 – decembrie 2014 – ultimele stiri crestine: http://alfaomega.tv/stiri/

Catacombele Romane – O plimbare virtuala prin catacombele Priscilla din sec. II- IV cu Google Street view – Tour of Roman catacomb from 2nd century

Photo Google street view

CLICK on photo for virtual tour

Globe and Mail UK raporteaza: Catacombele din strada Via Salaria in Roma au fost deschise dupa un proiect de innoire.Catacombele Priscilla au fost folosite din secolul II pana in secolul IV. Ele au fost descoperite in secolul 16.

Comisia pentru arheologie sacrală de la Vatican şi Google Maps au semnat o colaborare pentru ca oricine doreşte să poată vizita virtual catacombele din Priscilla – monument supranumit „regina catacombelor” din Roma creştină a secolelor II-IV.

Utilizatorii Google Maps pot face un turn virtual al catacombelor în mişcări la 360 de grade, într-o necropolă care se întinde pe mai mulţi kilometri.

Locul a fost folosit ca zona de înhumare între secolele al II-lea şi al IV-lea d. Chr.

Pentru vizitarea catacombelor urmaţi link-ul acesta – a virtual visit, sau faceti click pe poza de mai sus.

Photo credit catacombepriscilla.com

LIVE – Aniversare 25 de ani – Biserica Penticostala Elim din Timisoara Sarbatoare 21 – 24 Noiembrie 2013

Dumnezeu sa binecuvanteze Biserica Penticostala Elim din Timisoara, care poate sa spuna, ca si Samuel: „Până aici Domnul ne-a ajutat.“ (1 Samuel 7:12)

Biserica Penticostala Elim
Str. Virgil Madgearu, 39
300199, Timisoara, Romania

LIVE AICI – http://www.elim.ro

Aniversare 25 ani  ‘1988 – 2013’

Biserica Elim astazi Sursa Facebook

Biserica Elim Timisoara,
acum 25 de ani, pe strada Romulus (13 martie 1988)

Poza Agnus Dei – VIDEO by Criste Adrian

Criste Adrian a incarcat un video de acum 25 de ani, in 1988, cu un an inainte de caderea comunismului in Romania. Cum spune Adrian de la inceput, acest fisier este de calitate slabuta, mai ales sunetul, dar totusi e exceptional. A scos secvente din serviciul divin din 13 martie 1988 si a suprapus melodiile cu melodii asemanatoare. Cel mai impresionant este ca in acest video, membrii bisericii Elim au posibilitatea sa se recunoasca unii pe altii, pe rudeniile si prietenii lor asa cum aratau cu o generatie in urma. De notat este aglomeratia din biserica, cu zeci de frati stand in picioare ore intregi pe culoarele bisericii. Il vedem de asemenea (in acest video) pe Pastorul bisericii, fratele Tudorica Codreanu care a fost cunoscut de romanii de pretutindeni, ca un lider al miscarii Penticostale din Romania. Bravo Criste Adrian pentru acest video! Iti multumim pentru efortul tau care ne-a imbucurat inimile.

Programul de Deschidere
11 Noiembrie 1988

Biserica Penticostala Elim din Timisoara

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Partea 1

Deschiderea noului local. Dedicatie Pastorul Teodor Codreanu,  Trandafir Sandru, Secretarul Cultului Penticostal traduce o predica. (75 minute) (ALL VIDEOS by Bogdan Saracin)

Partea 2

FACETI-VA TIMP de PARTEA ASTA NEAPARAT. Continuare, predica tradusa de Trandafir Sandru pana la minutul 2. Urmeaza un poem exceptional, de un grup de tineri. (15 min) Poemul continua in fisierul video #3.

Partea 3

Poemul continua pana la minutul 8. Apoi, restul programului. (75 min)

Partea 4

(15 min)

Articole asemanatoare

Codreanu

Four myths of the Crusades

Religious divisions of Europe cca 1096 A.D. Photo credit wps.ablongman.com

This is a very helpful article, answering/ responding to the following 4 myths of the crusades, which he quotes from an article written by Paul F. Crawford at First Principles Spring 2011 edition of the Intercollegiate Review.:

In 2001, former president Bill Clinton delivered a speech at Georgetown University in which he discussed the West’s response to the recent terrorist attacks of September 11. The speech contained a short but significant reference to the crusades. Mr. Clinton observed that “when the Christian soldiers took Jerusalem [in 1099], they . . . proceeded to kill every woman and child who was Muslim on the Temple Mount.” He cited the “contemporaneous descriptions of the event” as describing “soldiers walking on the Temple Mount . . . with blood running up to their knees.” This story, Mr. Clinton said emphatically, was “still being told today in the Middle East and we are still paying for it.”

This view of the crusades is not unusual. It pervades textbooks as well as popular literature. One otherwise generally reliable Western civilization textbook claims that “the Crusades fused three characteristic medieval impulses: piety, pugnacity, and greed. All three were essential.” The film Kingdom of Heaven (2005) depicts crusaders as boorish bigots, the best of whom were torn between remorse for their excesses and lust to continue them. Even the historical supplements for role-playing games—drawing on supposedly more reliable sources—contain statements such as “The soldiers of the First Crusade appeared basically without warning, storming into the Holy Land with the avowed—literally—task of slaughtering unbelievers”; “The Crusades were an early sort of imperialism”; and “Confrontation with Islam gave birth to a period of religious fanaticism that spawned the terrible Inquisition and the religious wars that ravaged Europe during the Elizabethan era.” The most famous semipopular historian of the crusades, Sir Steven Runciman, ended his three volumes of magnificent prose with the judgment that the crusades were “nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God, which is the sin against the Holy Ghost.”

The verdict seems unanimous. From presidential speeches to role-playing games, the crusades are depicted as a deplorably violent episode in which thuggish Westerners trundled off, unprovoked, to murder and pillage peace-loving, sophisticated Muslims, laying down patterns of outrageous oppression that would be repeated throughout subsequent history. In many corners of the Western world today, this view is too commonplace and apparently obvious even to be challenged.

But unanimity is not a guarantee of accuracy. What everyone “knows” about the crusades may not, in fact, be true. From the many popular notions about the crusades, let us pick four and see if they bear close examination.

  1. Myth #1: The crusades represented an unprovoked attack by Western Christians on the Muslim world. Nothing could be further from the truth, and even a cursory chronological review makes that clear. In a.d. 632, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, North Africa, Spain, France, Italy, and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica were all Christian territories. Inside the boundaries of the Roman Empire, which was still fully functional in the eastern Mediterranean, orthodox Christianity was the official, and overwhelmingly majority, religion. Outside those boundaries were other large Christian communities—not necessarily orthodox and Catholic, but still Christian. Most of the Christian population of Persia, for example, was Nestorian. Certainly there were many Christian communities in Arabia.
  2. Myth #2: Western Christians went on crusade because their greed led them to plunder Muslims in order to get rich. Again, not true. One version of Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont in 1095 urging French warriors to embark on what would become known as the First Crusade does note that they might “make spoil of [the enemy’s] treasures,” but this was no more than an observation on the usual way of financing war in ancient and medieval society. And Fulcher of Chartres did write in the early twelfth century that those who had been poor in the West had become rich in the East as a result of their efforts on the First Crusade, obviously suggesting that others might do likewise. But Fulcher’s statement has to be read in its context, which was a chronic and eventually fatal shortage of manpower for the defense of the crusader states. Fulcher was not being entirely deceitful when he pointed out that one might become rich as a result of crusading. But he was not being entirely straightforward either, because for most participants, crusading was ruinously expensive.
  3. Myth #3: Crusaders were a cynical lot who did not really believe their own religious propaganda; rather, they had ulterior, materialistic motives.
  4. Myth #4: The crusades taught Muslims to hate and attack Christians. Part of the answer to this myth may be found above, under Myth #1. Muslims had been attacking Christians for more than 450 years before Pope Urban declared the First Crusade. They needed no incentive to continue doing so. But there is a more complicated answer here, as well. Up until quite recently, Muslims remembered the crusades as an instance in which they had beaten back a puny western Christian attack. An illuminating vignette is found in one of Lawrence of Arabia’s letters, describing a confrontation during post–World War I negotiations between the Frenchman Stéphen Pichon and Faisal al-Hashemi (later Faisal I of Iraq). Pichon presented a case for French interest in Syria going back to the crusades, which Faisal dismissed with a cutting remark: “But, pardon me, which of us won the crusades?”This was generally representative of the Muslim attitude toward the crusades before about World War I—that is, when Muslims bothered to remember them at all, which was not often. Most of the Arabic-language historical writing on the crusades before the mid-nineteenth century was produced by Arab Christians, not Muslims, and most of that was positive. There was no Arabic word for “crusades” until that period, either, and even then the coiners of the term were, again, Arab Christians. It had not seemed important to Muslims to distinguish the crusades from other conflicts between Christianity and Islam.

Back to the Present

Let us return to President Clinton’s Georgetown speech. How much of his reference to the First Crusade was accurate?

It is true that many Muslims who had surrendered and taken refuge under the banners of several of the crusader lords—an act which should have granted them quarter—were massacred by out-of-control troops. This was apparently an act of indiscipline, and the crusader lords in question are generally reported as having been extremely angry about it, since they knew it reflected badly on them. To imply—or plainly state—that this was an act desired by the entire crusader force, or that it was integral to crusading, is misleading at best. In any case, John France has put it well: “This notorious event should not be exaggerated. . . . However horrible the massacre . . . it was not far beyond what common practice of the day meted out to any place which resisted.” And given space, one could append a long and bloody list, stretching back to the seventh century, of similar actions where Muslims were the aggressors and Christians the victims. Such a list would not, however, have served Mr. Clinton’s purposes.

Mr. Clinton was probably using Raymond of Aguilers when he referred to “blood running up to [the] knees” of crusaders. But the physics of such a claim are impossible, as should be apparent. Raymond was plainly both bragging and also invoking the imagery of the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation. He was not offering a factual account, and probably did not intend the statement to be taken as such.

As for whether or not we are “still paying for it,” see Myth #4, above. This is the most serious misstatement of the whole passage. What we are paying for is not the First Crusade, but western distortions of the crusades in the nineteenth century which were taught to, and taken up by, an insufficiently critical Muslim world.

The problems with Mr. Clinton’s remarks indicate the pitfalls that await those who would attempt to explicate ancient or medieval texts without adequate historical awareness, and they illustrate very well what happens when one sets out to pick through the historical record for bits—distorted or merely selectively presented—which support one’s current political agenda. This sort of abuse of history has been distressingly familiar where the crusades are concerned.

But nothing is served by distorting the past for our own purposes. Or rather: a great many things may be served . . . but not the truth. Distortions and misrepresentations of the crusades will not help us understand the challenge posed to the West by a militant and resurgent Islam, and failure to understand that challenge could prove deadly. Indeed, it already has. It may take a very long time to set the record straight about the crusades. It is long past time to begin the task.

Read the entire article here: http://www.firstprinciplesjournal.com/articles, which I got from http://timothyjhammons.com/ via http://theaquilareport.com/

Also, Hammons adds 2 books recommended by  wintery knightwho added the following comment: “I think the Thomas F. Madden book and the Rodney Stark book are the two best books on the Crusades.

For Reformation Day – The Bible and Martin Luther

Here’s an older post that can be revisited every year at this time, when we remember the significance of the reformation that took place almost 500 years ago today.

English Bible History

Martin Luther

Martin Luther had a small head-start on Tyndale, as Luther declared his intolerance for the Roman Church’s corruption on Halloween in 1517, by nailing his 95 Theses of Contention to the Wittenberg Church door. Luther, who would be exiled in the months following the Diet of Worms Council in 1521 that was designed to martyr him, would translate the New Testament into German for the first time from the 1516 Greek-Latin New Testament of Erasmus, and publish it in September of 1522. Luther also published a German Pentateuch in 1523, and another edition of the German New Testament in 1529. In the 1530’s he would go on to publish the entire Bible in German. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a Christian theologian and Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Protestant and other Christian traditions.

Martin Luther was born to Hans and Margaretha Luder on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, Germany and was baptised the next day on the feast of St. Martin of Tours, after whom he was named. Luther’s call to the Church to return to the teachings of the Bible resulted in the formation of new traditions within Christianity and the Counter-Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church, culminating at the Council of Trent.His translation of the Bible also helped to develop a standard version of the German language and added several principles to the art of translation. Luther’s hymns sparked the development of congregational singing in Christianity. His marriage, on June 13, 1525, to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, began the tradition of clerical marriage within several Christian traditions.

Portraits of Hans and Margarethe Luther by Lucas Cranach  1527

Luther’s early life

Martin Luther’s father owned a copper mine in nearby Mansfeld. Having risen from the peasantry, his father was determined to see his son ascend to civil service and bring further honor to the family. To that end, Hans sent young Martin to schools in Mansfeld, Magdeburg and Eisenach. At the age of seventeen in 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt. The young student received his Bachelor’s degree after just one year in 1502! Three years later, in 1505, he received a Master’s degree. According to his father’s wishes, Martin enrolled in the law school of that university. All that changed during a thunderstorm in the summer of 1505. A lightening bolt struck near to him as he was returning to school. Terrified, he cried out, „Help, St. Anne! I’ll become a monk!” Spared of his life, but regretting his words, Luther kept his bargain, dropped out of law school and entered the monastery there.

Luther’s struggle to find peace with God

Young Brother Martin fully dedicated himself to monastic life, the effort to do good works to please God and to serve others through prayer for their souls. Yet peace with God escaped him. He devoted himself to fasts, flagellations, long hours in prayer and pilgrimages, and constant confession. The more he tried to do for God, it seemed, the more aware he became of his sinfulness.

Johann von Staupitz, Luther’s superior, concluded the young man needed more work to distract him from pondering himself. He ordered the monk to pursue an academic career. In 1507 Luther was ordained to the priesthood. In 1508 he began teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg. Luther earned his Bachelor’s degree in Biblical Studies on 9 March 1508 and a Bachelor’s degree in the Sentences by Peter Lombard, (the main textbook of theology in the Middle Ages) in 1509. On 19 October 1512, the University of Wittenberg conferred upon Martin Luther the degree of Doctor of Theology.

Martin Luther’s Evangelical Discovery

The demands of study for academic degrees and preparation for delivering lectures drove Martin Luther to study the Scriptures in depth. Luther immersed himself in the teachings of the Scripture and the early church. Slowly, terms like penance and righteousness took on new meaning. The controversy that broke loose with the publication of his 95 Theses placed even more pressure on the reformer to study the Bible. This study convinced him that the Church had lost sight of several central truths. To Luther, the most important of these was the doctrine that brought him peace with God.

With joy, Luther now believed and taught that salvation is a gift of God’s grace, received by faith and trust in God’s promise to forgive sins for the sake of Christ’s death on the cross. This, he believed was God’s work from beginning to end.

Luther’s 95 Theses

On Halloween of 1517, Luther changed the course of human history when he nailed his 95 Theses to the church door at Wittenberg, accusing the Roman Catholic church of heresy upon heresy. Many people cite this act as the primary starting point of the Protestant Reformation… though to be sure, John Wycliffe, John Hus, Thomas Linacre, John Colet, and others had already put the life’s work and even their lives on the line for same cause of truth, constructing the foundation of Reform upon which Luther now built. Luther’s action was in great part a response to the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel, a Dominican priest. Luther’s charges also directly challenged the position of the clergy in regard to individual salvation. Before long, Luther’s 95 Theses of Contention had been copied and published all over Europe.

Here I Stand

Luther’s Protestant views were condemned as heretical by Pope Leo X in the bull Exsurge Domine in 1520. Consequently Luther was summoned to either renounce or reaffirm them at the Diet of Worms on 17 April 1521. When he appeared before the assembly, Johann von Eck, by then assistant to the Archbishop of Trier, acted as spokesman for Emperor Charles the Fifth. He presented Luther with a table filled with copies of his writings. Eck asked Luther if he still believed what these works taught. He requested time to think about his answer. Granted an extension, Luther prayed, consulted with friends and mediators and presented himself before the Diet the next day.

Meeting of the Diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire at Worms, Germany, in 1521, where Martin Luther defended his Protestant principles and was excommunicated

When the counselor put the same question to Luther the next day, the reformer apologized for the harsh tone of many of his writings, but said that he could not reject the majority of them or the teachings in them. Luther respectfully but boldly stated, „Unless I am convinced by proofs from Scriptures or by plain and clear reasons and arguments, I can and will not retract, for it is neither safe nor wise to do anything against conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen.„On May 25, the Emperor issued his Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw.

Luther in Exile at the Wartburg Castle

The room in Wartburg where     Luther translated the New Testament into German. An original first edition of the translation is kept under the case on the desk.

Luther had powerful friends among the princes of Germany, one of whom was his own prince, Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony. The prince arranged for Luther to be seized on his way from the Diet by a company of masked horsemen, who carried him to the castle of the Wartburg, where he was kept about a year. He grew a wide flaring beard; took on the garb of a knight and assumed the pseudonym Jörg. During this period of forced sojourn in the world, Luther was still hard at work upon his celebrated translation of the Bible, though he couldn’t rely on the isolation of a monastery. During his translation, Luther would make forays into the nearby towns and markets to listen to people speak, so that he could put his translation of the Bible into the language of the people.

Although his stay at the Wartburg kept Luther hidden from public view, Luther often received letters from his friends and allies, asking for his views and advice. For example, Luther’s closest friend, Philipp Melanchthon, wrote to him and asked how to answer the charge that the reformers neglected pilgrimages, fasts and other traditional forms of piety. Luther’s replied: „If you are a preacher of mercy, do not preach an imaginary but the true mercy. If the mercy is true, you must therefore bear the true, not an imaginary sin. God does not save those who are only imaginary sinners. Be a sinner, and let your sins be strong, but let your trust in Christ be stronger, and rejoice in Christ who is the victor over sin, death, and the world. We will commit sins while we are here, for this life is not a place where justice resides. We, however, says Peter (2. Peter 3:13) are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth where justice will reign.” [Letter 99.13, To Philipp Melanchthon, 1 August 1521.]

Martin Luther’s German Bible

1529 Luther New Testament: The Oldest Printed German N.T. Scripture

Martin Luther was the first person to translate and publish the Bible in the commonly-spoken dialect of the German people. He used the recent 1516 critical Greek edition of Erasmus, a text which was later called textus receptus. The Luther German New Testament translation was first published in September of 1522. The translation of the Old Testament followed, yielding an entire German language Bible in 1534.

Luther is also know to have befriended William Tyndale, and given him safe haven and assistance in using the same 1516 Erasmus Greek-Latin Parallel New Testament that had been the source text for his German New Testament of 1522, as the trustworthy source text for Tyndale’s English New Testament of 1525-26.

Luther’s Writings

The number of books attributed to Martin Luther is quite impressive. However, some Luther scholars contend that many of the works were at least drafted by some of his good friends like Philipp Melanchthon. Luther’s books explain the settings of the epistles and show the conformity of the books of

1523 Luther Pentateuch:  The Oldest Printed      German Scripture

the Bible to each other. Of special note would be his writings about the Epistle to the Galatians in which he compares himself to the Apostle Paul in his defense of the Gospel. Luther also wrote about church administration and wrote much about the Christian home.

Luther’s work contains a number of statements that modern readers would consider rather crude. For example, Luther was know to advise people that they should literally “Tell the Devil he may kiss my ass.” It should be remembered that Luther received many communications from throughout Europe from people who could write anonymously, that is, without the specter of mass media making their communications known. No public figure today could write in the manner of the correspondences Luther received or in the way Luther responded to them. Luther was certainly a theologian of the middle-ages. He was an earthy man who enjoyed his beer, and was bold and often totally without tact in the blunt truth he vehemently preached. While this offended many, it endeared him all the more to others.

He was open with his frustrations and emotions, as well. Once, when asked if he truly loved God, Luther replied “Love God? Sometimes I hate Him!” Luther was also frustrated by the works-emphasis of the book of James, calling it “the Epistle of Straw, and questioning its canonicity. Also irritated with the complex symbolism of the Book of Revelation, he once said that it too, was not canon, and that it should be thrown into the river! He later retracted these statements, of course. Luther was a man who was easily misquoted or taken out of context. While a brilliant theologian, and a bold reformer, he would not have made a good politician. But then, he never aspired to any career in politics.

Luther’s 1534 Bible.

Martin Luther and Judaism

Luther initially preached tolerance towards the Jewish people, convinced that the reason they had never converted to Christianity was that they were discriminated against, or had never heard the Gospel of Christ. However, after his overtures to Jews failed to convince Jewish people to adopt Christianity, he began preaching that the Jews were set in evil, anti-Christian ways, and needed to be expelled from German politics. In his On the Jews and Their Lies, he repeatedly quotes the words of Jesus in Matthew 12:34, where Jesus called them „a brood of vipers and children of the devil”

Katharina von Bora, Luther’s wife (1523), by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1526

Luther was zealous toward the Gospel, and he wanted to protect the people of his homeland from the Jews who he believed would be harmful influences since they did not recognize Jesus as their Saviour. In Luther’s time, parents had a right and a duty to direct their children’s marriage choices in respect to matters of faith. Likewise, Luther felt a duty to direct his German people to cling to the Jesus the Jews did not accept. It should be noted that church law was superior to civil law in Luther’s day and that law said the penalty of blasphemy was death. When Luther called for the deaths of certain Jews, he was merely asking that the laws that were applied to all other Germans also be applied to the Jews. The Jews were exempt from the church laws that Christians were bound by, most notably the law against charging interest.

Martin Luther’s Death

Martin Luther escaped martyrdom, and died of natural causes. His last written words were, „Know that no one can have indulged in the Holy Writers sufficiently, unless he has governed churches for a hundred years with the prophets, such as Elijah and Elisha, John the Baptist, Christ and the apostles… We are beggars: this is true.

pictures and information (via) Wikipedia and GreatSite

Related Articles:

  1. Martin Luther –  Video Color, Video black and white
  2. John Wycliffe – first English Bible Translator Biography and  Video
  3. William Tyndale- first Bible translator from original languages Biography and Video
  4. The Impact of the printing Press on the Reformation
  5. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch
  6. The bestselling book of all times Part 1
  7. The bestselling book of all times Part 2

Carl Trueman at SBTS (4) Panel discussion (from the Luther lectures)


See

Southern Seminary SBTS Panel with Carl Trueman, Dan Dumas, and Michael Haykin. Unlike the three lectures which were all on the subject of Luther, this discussion turns to seminaries and their role in the spiritual formation of the students.

A few of the points discussed:

  • What about Spiritual formation as something within the curriculum (that pervades the curriculum) instead of as a separate discipline in the seminaries?

Michael Haykin: Biblical spirituality is the teaching and the communication of biblical truth about the way in which we draw near to God, then He is drawn near to us. It is therefore rooted deeply in the cross and the meritorious work and life of Jesus Christ and is conveyed to us by the Holy Spirit. And so, it’s reflecting about theology, which has to be there as a foundation, that is why the recent interest in spirituality in evangelical circles ( a la Dallas Willard and Richard Foster) which doesn’t lay religious doctrinal foundations is problematic. So it’s definitely got biblical foundations, building on that, showing and teaching how we appropriate the riches that are in Christ via prayer, bible meditation,  and the other things we describe as spiritual disciplines that are a means of grace.

(16 min) There has been a significant collapse of patterns of piety established at the reformation, honed through the puritan period, still in place there, among evangelicals in the 18th and early 19th century, but then have collapsed completely in the 20th century.

Carl Trueman: The sheer size of seminaries today imposes limitations on how we can form individual students as christians. And that’s where I can see again, the church coming into play. Certainly, when I stand up in front of the class I can model a certain kind of christianity to my students. But, I think the primary place where spirituality is formed has to be the church. It also goes back yo my fear that the parachurch (seminaries included) supplants the church

  • Concerns about the overall trends in the evangelical circles, primarily about what the church should be doing being passed down to parachurch ministries (such as seminaries).
  • Sometimes spiritual formation gets very narrowly defined by seminaries in a way that can be somewhat self serving. We should not make the attendance of chapel compulsory. We have a different profile of student than we had even, say 30 years ago. Lots of our students are working their way through seminary and I’m not sure the person who had to go to chapel at 10:30 in the morning is doing something more meritorious and forming than coming off night shift, straight to my 8:30 class, then going home to see his wife.

Panel Discussion from Southern Seminary on Vimeo.

Carl Trueman Lecture at SBTS (3) Martin Luther – The Tools of the Trade

Watch

Dr. Carl Trueman: In the first lecture I wanted to make the argument that theology and the practice of ministry are intimately connected. Luther is a great example of this. You see that Luther’s theology really drives his understanding of the shape of pastoral ministry. And I wanted to challenge you to move beyond the merely historical point I’m making there, to reflect longer on how you perceive ministry and how your perception actually reflects something about your theological convictions and to urge you to allow your theological convictions to drive how you think about ministry.

The second lecture I talked about Luther’s understanding of the word of God, how God is fundamentally to us, a God who speaks. And God’s speech essential constitutes reality. And I applied that to the nature of preaching. I think one of Luther’s great insights is the connection he makes between the speech of God and the speech of the preacher. And I hope that those of you who are preachers, or are going to be preachers will be excited by that idea that when the preacher speaks God’s word is powerful.

The final lecture- The Tools of the Trade- I wanna make the point that ordinary people mattered to the shape of Luther’s reformation. These are the people that are not typically featured in the textbooks other than as statistics, because, by and large they were too busy working to put bread on the table than to write books about how they’re feeling. But, yet, Luther’s connection with these people profoundly shaped how he executed his task as pastor.

So, in the third lecture I want to examine the practicality of Luther’s own pastoral ministry. As with all pastors, Luther is of course a flawed human being. And the details of his actual practice do not entirely square with his theology. One obvious example would be his increasingly bitter preoccupation with the Jews, which one finds from the 1530’s onwards. Frustrated by their failure to convert to Christianity, Luther adopted, and, indeed sharpened many of the standard –- of the anti Jewish polemic, which was so common in late medieval Europe. Indeed, his very last sermon, preached in 1546 ended with a bitter harangue against the jews. Thus, I accept at the outset that if you dig deep into Luther’s life, you will find inconsistencies and hypocrisies, here and there. My point here is not to argue for the total consistency of Luther, but rather a general conformity of his practice to his theological commitments.

The reform of worship

The first point to make as we now approach Luther’s pastoral practice, is that the way in which he reformed worship was intimately connected to his care and concern for ordinary people. Many of us are familiar with his treatise on prayer, which was originally a letter to his hairdresser Peter, who had told him while cutting his hair that he struggled with his prayer life. Reflect on that for awhile. Luther had time to write a handbook on prayer for the man who cut his hair.

Martin Luther, author of the text of Christ la...

Martin Luther, author of the text of Christ lag in Todes Banden, and who, with Johann Walter, also wrote the melody (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Even the briefest glance at Luther’s volume of letters reveal a man who was equally comfortable writing to powerful princes and to much lesser individuals with words of encouragement, counsel and occasional letters of rebuke. Yet, Luther’s care for people has significance, not simply for his personal relations, but also for the pace and shape of the Lutheran reformation. Basic to the reformation was the education of the people in the patterns of thought and behavior reformers required by their new theology. This issue raised all manner of pedagogical questions, which in turn raised questions about what we might call now broadly – aesthetics. What was church meant to look like? What was church meant to sound like? What was family piety and individual devotions meant to look like and sound like?

In the early years of the reformation, leadership at Wittenberg was shared by Martin Luther and his academic colleague, one time friend and later nemesis, a man called Andreas Bodenstein, (named Karlstadt after his birthplace). In the years after 1517, these 2 men came to represent 2 different visions of reform and Wittenberg would ultimately prove that it was only big enough to allow only one man to succeed.

Things came to a head in 1522. After the Diet of Worms, Luther was kidnapped by his prince, Frederick the Wise’s men and kept for his own safety in the Wartburg castle, high on the hills of Eisenach where he began his work of producing a German reformation Bible, by translating the New Testament.

As Luther is in the Wartburg castle, the leadership passes to Karlstadt. Luther’s young assistant Philip Melanchthon and  his colleague Conrad Zwilling pushed very hard for radical reformation, which has all of the hallmarks of social revolution. Iconoclasm, violent rhetoric at rapid pace. Luther, later in 1521 travels to Wittenberg incognito to see the chaos first hand. And then in 1522 he’s brought back by Frederick the Wise because the riots are getting out of hand and if the reformation descends into total chaos, Frederick will have to act to crush it because the emperor Charles V will move against Saxony. Luther comes back and I think this is the point in his career where he is actually in most danger because if he can’t quell the riots in Wittenberg, and all he can use to do that is his own force of personality, he will be replaced by Frederick the Wise.

Luther comes back, quells the social revolution in Wittenberg and introduces  a much more conservative vision of reformation. There will be no iconoclasm. If you go to a Lutheran church today, you will find crucifixes. The conservative however of Luther’s intervention in 1522 was not simply a piece of political pragmatism. I think it was also connected to his pastoral sensitivity. Luther knew that lasting change could only be brought about by gentle persuasion. Most people then, as ever since did not like change. And so, Luther demonstrated in 1522 and throughout his subsequent career an aesthetic conservatism, which was designed as much to prevent the disturbance of tender consciences as it was to appease the desire of his political masters.

We tend to romanticize the reformation and we think that everybody is desperate for the reformation to come to town. We see evidence of this in Luther’s liturgical innovations. From as early as 1520, it is clear that Lutheran theology demands vernacular liturgy. How could the mass, for example, be any use if the words of promise are not clearly articulated in a language which the people could understand? Yet, for a man who stands out in history as a volcanic revolutionary, Luther’s move towards liturgical reform are gradual and hesitant. This is how he describes his approach in a pamphlet in 1523(6 yrs. after the crisis of 1517): Until now, I have only used books and sermons to wean the charts of the people from their Godless regard for the ceremonial. For I believed it would be a christian and helpful thing, if I could prompt a peaceful removal of the abomination that Satan sets up in the holy place, through the man of sin. Therefore I’ve used neither authority or pressure, nor did I make any innovations for I have been hesitant and fearful, partly because of the weak in faith who cannot suddenly exchange an accustomed order of worship for a new and unusual one and also because of the fickle  and fastidious spirits who rush in like unclean swine without faith or reason and who delight only in novelty and tires of it as quickly when it is worn off. Such people are a nuisance, even in other affairs. But, in spiritual matters they are absolutely unbearable. Nonetheless, at the risk of bursting with anger, I must bear with them, unless I want to let the Gospel itself be denied to the people.

Here, Luther made it clear that he was concerned to handle the delicate consciences with care and also to give no ground to those who seek novelty or innovation for its own sake. The liturgy he then described in 1523 was itself very conservative. Essentially, a cleaned up version of the traditional mass. Still in Latin, except for the sermon and a few hymns. And later, Luther can hardly be described as being in the vanguard of the application of his own theological principles to liturgical reform.

Indeed, even in 1524, as he wrote against the radicals, Luther rejoiced that the mass was now said in German, but also argued that such a practice should not be made compulsory lest it become a new legalism. And also because he was not yet satisfied that the German liturgy captured the full beauty of what was going on. It was not until October 1525 that a full German mass was celebrated in Wittenberg.  That’s as early as Luther feels able to push forward with the full application of theology that he’s fully articulating in 1517-1518. It’s remarkable sensitivity. (17 min mark)

The Tools of the Trade from Southern Seminary on Vimeo.

Carl Trueman at SBTS (2) The Word in Action – Luther’s theology of the preached word

See

Dr. Carl Trueman:

In lecture 2 I want to talk about the power in the Word. In the first lecture (click on link above for first lecture)  I sketched out the basics of Luther’s theology, with particular reference to his understanding of God’s revelation of Himself in the incarnate and crucified flesh of Jesus Christ. There, and only there did Luther believe one can find God revealed as being gracious towards sinners. To approach God in any way, outside the flesh of Christ was to approach the God of righteous judgment. A consuming fire, the terrifying God who rides on the wing of  a storm and who is accountable to no one. And before whom no sinful creature can stand and expect to live.

In the second lecture I want to move from the theological foundations we’ve established to Luther’s theology of the preached word. And by the third lecture we’ll finally get to Luther’s practice of pastoral ministry. But, it’s in the preached word that the church encounters the crucified Christ and thus the preached word which must be central to the church’s life and actions. In addition, we must also remember the basic arguments of these lectures as a whole, that Luther’s theology is determinative of his understanding of the nature and the toils of the pastoral ministry.

That he would have found modern evangelical claims to ‘agree on the Gospel’, but, ‘to allow freedom in method and practice’ to be strange. Not that the Lutheran reformation looked exactly the same, everywhere in Germany. Liturgy varied in detail between places, but the basic shape of pastoral ministry and of church life enjoyed a high degree of consensus. As is the historian’s way, however, I cannot begin the story of Luther’s understanding of the word of god with Luther himself.

The late medieval background

Martin Luther, author of the text of Christ la...

…..  In many ways Luther remained a man of medieval ages. His politically conservative futurism and his acute sense of the physical presence of the devil, and also of demons and imps are just two examples of what separates him from the other reformers. who were trained as renaissance humanists and were men of the modern age. On the theological front, it was the late medieval critical philosophy of the language, connected to the radical application of what was called the dialectic of God’s two powers which gripped Luther’s theological imagination and remained with him from the monastic cloister to the day of his death.

…..Competency in human reason had been declining from the 12th century onwards in Europe. And this dialectic between the 2 powers of God was used in a dialectic and critical way to articulate the increasing epistemological modesty that people had with regard to God. Human reason came to be regarded less and less competent to predict what God would be like. And first, theologians focused increasingly on revelation as the source of the knowledge of God. We shouldn’t get too excited, as that revelation was not identified with Scripture, by these late medieval theologians so much as the teaching of the church’s magisterium. The distinction also fed and strengthened a perennial linguistic debate about the nature and function of words. And this will become significant for Luther’s understanding of preaching. Taken to its extreme this became an anti-essentialist view of being which effectively made words themselves the determiners of reality. This is what is known as late medieval nominalism and it was the linguistic school in which Luther was trained and whose basic assumptions remained with him throughout his entire career, to the day of his death.

Those critics of post modernism, such as Terry Eagleton have pointed out there are pointed similarities between medieval nominalism and certain schools of post modern linguistic theory. We might summarize these similarities by saying that both envisage the world as a linguistic construct. Words, not essences become determinative and constitutive of reality. I suspect that Luther would have little time for the excesses of postmodern anti-essentialism with the kind of kaleidoscopic anarchy it has created with the regard to gender, sexuality and even the notion of human nature. Nevertheless, we should note that Luther would not object to postmodernism by reasserting a kind of essentialism. Rather, I suspect, Luther’s rejection of postmodern anarchy would be based on his belief that God is the supreme reality, that He is ultimately the one who speaks, and whose speech is therefore the ground of existence and of difference. Reality is not determined by the linguistic proclivities of any human individual, or any human community, but by the word of God.

The theological implications of this should become obvious. For example, to refer back to the theology of the cross- the empiricist, the essentialist looks at the cross and sees weakness, agony, suffering and defeat, and no more. That is the outward aesthetics of the cross would seem to indicate. And it is what the social and philosophical conventions of Jews and Greeks of 1st Corinthians would also lead them to believe. But, neither the empirical aesthetics, nor their interpretation through the grid of their constructed social conventions are actually any guide to the reality  of what is taking place. God has extrinsically declared the cross to be powerful, a victory, a moment of triumph. And God’s word trumps everything in determining the reality that is there. Thus, only those christians who reject the evidence of their senses, and reject the established logic and expectations of their culture and trust instead in their counter intuitive truth of God’s words can truly understand the reality.

The same, of course applies to justification. Older medieval approaches to justification required the individual actually to be somewhat righteous before God could declare the person to be justified. Late medieval theologian Gabriel Biel had broken with this tradition, arguing instead that God could set His own criteria for the declaration of justification. For Biel, God had entered into a pact with human beings and had agreed that according to His ordained power He was going to accept an individual’s best efforts as righteousness, as meeting the condition for God to declare that person to be in a state of grace. Once in such a state of grace, the individual could then benefit form sacramental grace  and do works of real righteousness and intrinsic merit.

Luther came to reject the theology of Biel as a form of semi pelagianism. The very idea that one could do one’s best and meet any condition became anathema to him. If human beings are morally dead, then the only things they can do is acknowledge that in all humility despair in themselves and look to God for unmerited mercy. Yet in breaking with Biel, Luther remained indebted to one of Biel’s most important conceptual moves. For Biel, as later for Luther, the justified person was not necessarily, actually, intrinsically righteous. They were simply declared extrinsically to be righteous by God.

By making entry into a state of grace, something that was not based on intrinsic merit, but rather on merit determined on extrinsic pactum. Biel first shattered the link between essential reality and divinely determined reality. For those of you interested in the history of the ‘History of Dogma’ will know that this is something for which conservative catholic historians of dogma have never forgiven him and which indeed shapes how our contemporary historians like Brad S. Gregory of Notre Dame views the reformation. The reformation is seen as the ultimate evil fruit of late medieval anti-essentialism.

The practical significance of this linguistic philosophy for Luther as pastor is that words become absolutely foundational to everything the pastor does. If words determine reality, then of all things the pastor does, the words he speaks are the most important: Reading the bible in public, preaching the word form the pulpit, applying the word individually in the confessional. Each of these things determine the reality of the church. This linguistic emphasis also helps explain to those of us with less sacramental proclivities than Luther why he holds such high views of baptism and the Lord’s Supper. That on the latter point at least, he’s willing to divide protestantism over the issue.  Incidentally, Luther’s objection to transubstantiation is not in 1520 that the body and blood of Christ are there, it’s that the bread and the wine have disappeared.

It would be remiss of me simply to reduce Luther’s reformation theology to a particularly radical application of late medieval linguistic theory as a means of solving his own personal issues

The Word in Action from Southern Seminary on Vimeo.

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