Benefits of Technology to the Church – Dallas Seminary

In this episode, Dr. Darrell Bock and Gerry Breshears discuss technology, focusing on the benefits of technological advance for the Church.…

00:16 How can the church best use technology for criticism or inquiry?
03:02 How can we more responsibly process online information?
06:58 How can irresponsible sources twist information?
14:31 What are some positive aspects of technology for education?
22:53 The accessibility of educational resources
29:39 The need for increased discernment in processing online sources…

VIDEO by dallasseminary

Darrell Bock – Answering Questions About Missing Gospels

In this program, Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. Darrell Bock look at the many claims made regarding new gospels. We’ll see they are not really “new” after all. They were known and rejected by the early church and were written well after the New Testament writings.e regarding new gospels. We’ll see they are not really “new” after all. They were known and rejected by the early church and were written well after the New Testament writings.

VIDEO by John Ankerberg

Who is the “Son of Man” in Daniel 7?

Darrell Bock –

VIDEO by John Ankerberg

More on the Son of Man here –

How Does Narrative Teach Theology and Ethics? Dr. Darrell Bock

How Does Narrative Teach Theology and Ethics?
[Part 1 – Applying Biblical Ethics to Hot Button Issues]
with Darrell Bock, Daniel Carroll Rodas

In this episode, Dr. Darrell Bock and Dr. Daniel Carroll-Rodas discuss approaching ethical issues with a holistic view of Scripture, focusing on the relationship of Old Testament narratives to biblical ethics. From Dallas Theological Seminary.…

00:13 Dr. Carroll-Rodas’ background in Ethics and Old Testament Studies
04:01 Why are ethical statements not more prominent in creeds?
09:51 How can we begin to think about the Bible ethically?
12:39 How do Old Testament narratives teach us about ethics?
19:18 Learning from the narrative of Abram and Sarai in Genesis 12
24:23 How does one’s position on ethical issues impact one’s reading of Old Testament narratives?
31:25 How does one’s location impact one’s reading of Old Testament narratives?…


VIDEO by dallasseminary

…an excerpt from the pdf, a parallel to immigration, from the Old Testament:

So that means we’ve gotta be better readers and more careful readers, and we’ve got to think about narrative in a different way. You did something in what you presented today, even though this podcast is gonna go out weeks from now. You did something today that I thought was interesting, that I thought might be worth also getting people to think about how narrative works as we move to talking about ethics, and that is you told the story of Abraham as an immigrant. And normally in our circles, when we go to Genesis, we go to Genesis for the Abrahamic Covenant.

Here’s the promise made to Israel. And yeah, Abraham took a little bit of a journey, and it took a while and that kind of thing, but eventually worked its way there and the promise was planted. And that’s about all you get out of it. But you were trying to get us to think through if I can say it this way, where Abraham was, where his location was, what he was is God took him through what he went through and how that can be a lesson for us. Can you illustrate that and elaborate that for us for a little?

Yeah. Let me illustrate that and then tell you how I was taught it.

Okay, and there you’ll see the comparison or contrast. What I was telling this morning in chapel was the Genesis 12, where he’s been called out of Ur at the end of chapter 11, goes up to Harran and he then he comes into Canaan and receives the promise Abram does in Genesis 12-1:3 and we sit on that, rightly so. And then he begins to move into the land and build altars and call the name of God. All very good, but then you get about verse nine or ten and it says there was a famine in the land and he picks up the clan, because he’s the head of a clan, not a nuclear family.

And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land. photo

And they begin to make the trek to Egypt because there’s food. You have the Nile. So you’ll have water, which means you have harvest, which means there is food to eat. And so Egypt was always having to deal with people trying to come in for food. And so we know from archaeology they’d set up a series of forts along their eastern frontier to help monitor the movement. So it’s very human, I mean, what’s going on. Nothing new on that.

That’s their border wall, huh?

That’s their border wall.

And so what happens is they get close to Egypt and does this mean he’s coming up to one of these checkpoints for it? Don’t know, but he tells Sarai, „Look, if they ask you, tell them you’re my sister, not my wife.” Now, we know from later in the narrative that they are related, but what you see – he’s trying to protect himself, right? But the driving point of the story is that they’re hungry and Abram is willing to lie to get across the border and to protect himself in that move.

But what is driving them to go there is hunger. And she’s willing to go through with it for the sake of the family. Now, it’s very wise. I didn’t get into this this morning because I was watching the clock, but as the brother, if anyone wanted Sarai, they would have to ask the brother for permission to marry her. So you could see where at the same time he is protecting her and they’re just pushing whatever bad thing happens down the road a little bit.

But I was trying to tell people this morning is that what you see is Abram is hungry, and this is why people move, because they’re hungry. And if it means lying to get across a border to feed your family, you’re willing to do it, and she’s willing to put herself at risk sexually, for being very blunt, for the sake of the family, okay? Now, so you’re reading this as an immigrant story, and I work a lot with immigration, as you know, so I’ve heard these stories. And they’re kind of like this, you know, where they lie to get across.

But I know when I went to seminary, the ethical debate was, was what Abram actually said a lie? And so there was all this kind of maneuvering to get Abram off the hook for not actually lying. Or if he did, it wasn’t really a bad a lie, right? So what you can see is though it is echoing immigrant stories, when I got taught, it was all about “is it a lie?”

Yeah. It’s with the search for the moral principal and whether or not it works or not.

And so what you’re seeing is the search for some kind of eternal, moral principal or whatever is totally, I think, missed –

The narrative.

The narrative and the power of the narrative, which resonates with a lot of immigrant stories today.

And of course the background of being an alien in a strange land emerges out of that story as a core metaphor that actually runs through the totality of Scripture. Well, this is supposed to be a podcast on narrative criticism, so we’ll leave it there.

But I think the point is well established that sets kind of the parameters for what we wanna discuss, and that is that we really are talking about – when we’re talking about ethics and the Scripture, we’re really talking about reading the Bible for the whole of what it is doing, for the way in which all of it addresses something, because what happens in ethical discussions is what I find happening. And you can almost pick your issue on this, where you can think, years ago, when we were debating slavery and they were very biblically oriented people who were defending slavery to the death. I mean that’s what the Civil War was about.

Literally, yeah.

That’s right. Or you think about the way in which gun control is discussed today, or immigration is discussed today, and what happens is people pick their place to start and land their discussion as a principle and in the process then, shut off anything that comes against that. My own take on working and thinking about this is that actually what you have in Scripture is a much more complex and actually lifelike situation. The Scripture addresses the tensions of life and stories tell or address the topic from those tension points.

Darrell Bock on the (New) Queen James (Bible) Part 1 – Passages in the Old Testament at Dallas Theological Seminary

darrell bockIn this episode, Dr. Darrell Bock, Dr. Robert Chisholm, Dr. Joe Fantin, and Dr. Jay Smith examine biblical passages often bought up in discussions about homosexuality, focusing on material in the Old Testament.


Within the last year, there is a Bible that is called the Queen James Bible. You heard that right. That was not King James, that was Queen James. I remember telling my wife this in preparation for this podcast, and she said, „You’ve got to be joking”. There is a group who sat down with the King James Scripture and worked their way through 8 passages (we’ll be discussing more than that today), but, 8 passages that they altered in light of what they claim is the proper way to render these texts. And so, we thought, this is great way into discussing this material:
00:12 Guest introductions and the goals of revisions in the Queen James Bible

04:13 Does Noah’s situation in Genesis 9 contribute to a biblical perspective of homosexuality?

09:03 Does the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in Genesis 19 contribute to a biblical perspective of homosexuality?…

15:08 Does the prohibition in Leviticus 20:22 contribute to a biblical perspective of homosexuality?

23:11 What does the term „abomination” mean in Leviticus 20:22?

29:22 Israel’s call to holiness and the code for serious offenses in Leviticus 20…

34:03 Does David’s description of Jonathan in 2 Samuel

1:26 contribute to a biblical perspective of homosexuality?

38:33 Responding to the challenge that Jesus did not object to homosexuality……  Youtube VIDEO by dallasseminary

Dr. Darrell Bock – Culture Shock: How to live faithfully overseas

darrell bock

VIDEO Published on Jul 15, 2013 by dallasseminary

Dr. Darrell Bock and Dr. Scott Cunningham discuss cultural engagement on a global scale, focusing on the Christian’s challenge of faithfully living as a social minority in overseas contexts.

00:11 Faithfully serving Christ and society as a social minority overseas
11:22 The challenge of cultural engagement in the workplace
15:39 How courses help students integrate the Christian worldview and their careers
18:20 Cultural engagement lessons learned overseas
22:25 Examples of engagement in cultures which hold mixed values
32:33 Awareness, intentionality, and integration in overseas contexts
34:57 How cultural context impacts reading of Scripture

Christian Leadership Training Around the World

Dr. Darrell Bock and Dr. Scott Cunningham discuss cultural engagement on a global scale, including Christian leadership training in non-Western cultures and the Christian’s challenge of faithfully living as a social minority in overseas contexts.

Darrell Bock – How to Build Relationships with Muslims and Life as a Woman in the Context of Islam

Middle-East-mapVIDEOS by dallasseminary

Dr. Darrell Bock and „Miriam” discuss life in the context of Islam, focusing on her spiritual journey from Islam to Christianity. Miriam’s voice is digitally rearranged in order to protect her identity.

Growing up in the Middle East

01:56 Miriam shares what it was like growing up in the Middle East
07:55 How Muslims view the days of the week
12:55 American stereotypes of Muslims
14:28 The kinds of Muslims around the world
16:30 Life in the United States vs. life in the Middle East
19:16 Contrasting religious Muslims and secular Muslims

How to Build Relationships with Muslims

00:12 Identity and religion in the Middle East
02:30 Different branches of Islam
04:32 Honesty and terrorism in Islam
11:05 Miriam’s spiritual journey from Islam to Christianity
16:39 Miriam’s ministry to Muslims in the United States
17:18 Advice on interacting with Muslim people

Life as a Woman in the Context of Islam


DTS Prof. Darrell Bock – What is the one thing preachers cannot afford to omit?

Here’s a short excerpt from this 12 minute video on the New testament books of Luke and Acts from Darrell Bock. Read the entire transcript directly below the video-

We tend to preach the Gospel as if it’s only about the forgiveness of sins. But, in fact, the whole point about having your sins forgiven is to reconnect you to God so that you can live the life He’s designed you to have. So, the gift of the Spirit is the enabler in that. And that was the missing dimension in the Hebrew Scriptures in the Old Testament and the Mosaic Covenant, is that God was working with the law, but, He wasn’t working inside the heart. So, He promised a New Covenant in Jeremiah. He says, „I’m gonna put the law in your heart, I’m gonna bring it inside of you. That’s the Gospel and that is the message of Acts 2. I say, „Preach it!” 

Darrell Bock Preaching from CPX on Vimeo.

Darrell Bock on preaching from Luke and Acts:

I think it is very important to make God and Jesus the main actors in the stories. Sometimes when we preach, we make the focus of the story ‘US’. But, if we do that, we actually lose the interactive dimension of being responsive to God in the process. In everything, Luke-Acts is being by God’s plan, by God’s direction. So, keeping God at the center of the story is really important.

We call the second book Luke wrote ‘The Acts of the Apostles’. But, it really is the acts of God through Jesus Christ. And everything that’s happening is a response to God’s direction. Every key turning point: Paul’s conversion, the entry of Gentiles into the community through Peter’s preaching to Cornelius is directed by God. Even God’s protection of Paul as he goes to Rome. So keep God at the center of the story.

What are some of the key things that we need to feature highly in preaching?

A key theme, which at first doesn’t seem relevant, but actually is is the whole issue of legitimization. Luke-Acts is written to substantiate or legitimate the christian faith. Because, in the Greco Roman world a new religion was problematic. A new religion needed to be time tested in order to have value. So, Luke is actually explaining how the program of God in Jesus Christ- this is something new- it’s part of the promises that go back centuries. It goes back, in fact, millennia to Abraham. And so, this long connection is important. Even the idea of including Jews and Gentiles was an evidence of the reconciliation that God is bringing through salvation is legitimated and substantiated  by the way Luke tells the story. And that’s important because what it shows is the point of the Gospel is this reconciliation that is going on, which is one of the points of salvation. To reclaim the creation and put it back in alignment with itself.

And if you know the history of Jews and Gentiles, what the history was before the time of Christ, the Gentiles tried to wipe out the Jewish faith- there was a lot of hostility. The idea of trying to reconcile those two very hostile groups is actually quite an assignment that Luke is saying, God is taking on.

There is also the very presentation of Jesus in the 2 volumes. I think Luke tells the story of Jesus, primarily from the earth up. We understand that He’s the Messiah in the beginning, that He fits in to the promises that were made to Israel at the start. Certain covenant commitments, we can get our hands around that. But, as we move through the story, we see Him do things that points to an authority that means He’s more than a Messiah. He’s more than a prophet. And so, He does things like- He has authority over the Sabbath. Well, who’s responsible for the Sabbath? God was. It was the picture of His seventh day of resting. It was in the 10 commandments. Yet, Jesus says the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. He forgives sin. Well, who gets to forgive sins, but God alone? He calms the winds and the waves. Who’s able to do that? The Psalms tell us that God is responsible for calming the winds and the waves.

And then, there are other things. He changes the liturgy of Israel. The Exodus story, the passover gets changed into His own story. Well, who gives Him authority to do that? It’s one thing to write liturgy that expands on an event that is already in place. Jesus completely changes, He has the authority to do that. He walks into the temple and cleanses it. Who has the authority to do that and speak for God? And so, then, He finally says, „God’s gonna vindicate Me and give Me a seat with God in heaven.” Who gets to do that?

So, the whole point of Luke’s Gospel is to show how unique Jesus is and Acts shows Him pouring out the gift of salvation that is a sign of the new era of the Holy Spirit onto people, to claim a people for HImself and to enable and empower them to walk with God. That’s the story of Acts. The theme beyond Jesus-earth-up that’s important in Luke-Acts is how the Holy Spirit  and the coming of the Holy Spirit is the coming of a new era that comes through Jesus. And so, that makes Acts a pivot in the two volumes because that’s where the Spirit is poured out and that’s where Peter  and Israel can now know that God has made ‘this Jesus’ Lord and Christ. In other words, He’s made it evident that’s who He is.

What resonates with a modern audience from Luke-Acts?

There are all kinds of ethical dimensions to what Luke is doing in Luke-Acts that’s very important. I like to point out that in the very first chapter, when John the Baptist is introduced, in verses 16 & 17, it says ‘He’s gonna turn Israel to God’. Then, in the next verse it says ‘He’s gonna turn the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the righteous’. Normally, when you think of repentance, you think, „Well, that’s between me and God.” But, Luke is showing, „No, if you repent, there’s a response between you and God that’s gonna impact the way you’re relating to other people.” He reinforces this 2 chapters later in chap. 3:10-14, another unique part of Luke, where he’s discussing John the Baptist. We don’t have this in any of the other gospels.

And the people ask, „What are we supposed to do?’ after John asks them to „make fruit worthy of repentance”. The greek verb in both the statement and in the question is the same. It means to do or to make fruit. Every answer to the 3 different groups that ask the question has to do with how we are relating to other people and not how we’re relating to God. It actually reflects something we see in the Old Testament because the 10 commandments have 2 parts. There’s the part that deals with our relationship with God and there’s the part that deals with our relationship to others. And we’re supposed to see that as a whole. And even the 2 great commandments that Jesus taught go the same way: Love the Lord your God with all your heart, mind and soul, and love your neighbor as yourself.

Jesus is saying, if there’s a transition in the way we live before God, that’s gonna impact the way we relate to others. So, He talks about how we relate to the poor, what we do with our possessions, how we deal with widows and people in need, so there are all kinds of acts of compassion. All this resonates at a core level in terms of what you can teach and preach in Luke-Acts.

How should you preach from Luke-Acts? 

I think you just present them, they are effective communication of what the message of the church is about. So, the preacher who preaches the sermons in Acts, in particular, and there a few sermons as well that Jesus gives, say, at the synagogue in Nazareth. Just present their content and make clear what it is that the speaker was getting at. I mean the whole idea of Acts 2- that the way we can know that the new era of God has come is by the gift of the Spirit that He gives to us as a result of forgiveness of sins. It makes a point of what the Gospel is.

This Gospel provides a life that is moral, it’s a life of integrity, it’s a life of quality, a life of giving. You’re not just taking. And you receive from God graciously, but because you understand what it is to receive- you give. And so, This is a very important part of the Gospel. Too much of our lives are oriented simply for being takers and taking in and consuming  and disposing. And then, everything else becomes an object that I utilize for my own purposes. Part of what happens in christianity is that you move outside yourself. And in moving outside yourself, you engage other people in a way that is completely different than the way they’re used to being engaged and you actually end up affirming them in the process if you do it well and if you do it with a good moral balance. So, it doesn’t suppress life at all. It actually releases life and it keeps you from destroying life.

Luke’s unique way of writing

I think we see an emphasis in the way Luke writes that is very important. We have hymns that shows how we praise God. We praise God by thanking Him for what He’s done. There’s a wonderful contrast between the hymns of the  material in which Mary praises God for reaching out to a humble girl like her. She was 13 years old or so when she becomes Joseph’s wife and has this child through the Holy Spirit. So, you’ve got that on the one hand. And the you’ve got the contrast with the Pharisee that says, „I thank you God that I’m such a great guy, that  I fast twice a week, and I tithe and I’m not like this sinner who’s over here, next to me praying. There’s a very stark difference in that and there’s a humility in that that Luke talks about that is a part of our worship.

When the centurion says to Jesus, through Jewish emissaries, „You don’t need  to come under my house, in order to heal, I’m not worthy to have You come in my house”. Or, when the sinful woman anoints Jesus, out of love and gratitude for the forgiveness of sins that Jesus has provided, that she couldn’t provide for herself. That humility, that lack of entitlement fills our spirit of worship, causes us to love God cause we appreciate the debt that He’s cancelled for us. In that love and in that devotion, there’s an allegiance that is a reflection of worship. That’s what Luke is getting at, in terms of how we respond to the message of the Gospel. And, certainly, that is something that should be emphasized as you preach through these 2 volumes.

Related articles

The Unique Jesus Story – DTS Prof. Darrell Bock

Who, why, and what of the Gospels

No one Gospel comes with ‘i’, ‘x’, (noting) whoever wrote this Gospel. So we have to figure that out. We determine it either internally, based on the kinds of things that they wrote. But, that doesn’t give us an identity. That gives us more ‘the kind of person that the author was.’ You know, were they Jewish, were they gentile? That kind of thing. Did they care about Israel right within Israel, or form outside?

The identity of our authors comes through the tradition, about what’s said about authorship. And so, the debate that rotates about how accurate that tradition is. There really are 2 models:

  1. One model is: Well, they really don’t know who the author is, so it was connected to a luminary to add status to a work who is anonymous but has the theology that they want.
  2. The other model is: No, the tradition has some knowledge of who the author is and has passed it on accurately.

And I like to challenge the idea of the luminary theory. I like to use the Gospel of Mark to do this, cause it’s such a good example of my problem.

The tradition tells us very consistently that Mark and Peter worked together in the production of this Gospel. Mark was the author, but Mark was working with Peter’s teaching and so, if you do the luminary theory. The luminary theory is- you don’t know who the author is. You put in ‘X’ and it’s gonna raise the status of this work. And you have the choice between Peter and Mark. At one level, just at the surface. Just hearing, who are you gonna pick? Well, you’re gonna pick Peter. But, it’s obviously worst than that, because if you look at Mark CV, if you look at what we know about him from his life, he went home to mom on his first missionary journey, according to Acts. He didn’t make it through persecution. And, the second thing that he did is he caused a split between Barnabas and Paul on the second missionary journey. Now, those are 2 not so stellar moments. He’s not one of the greats of the early church. In terms of what he did, the thing that gives him greatness is his association with the second gospel. So, you have a choice between this Mark with his track record on the one hand, and Peter, who obviously was a luminary apostle, a key disciple of Jesus and you could put whoever you want in there because you’re free to do what you want. That’s what the model says. And (if) you wanna lift up the status of the work, who you gonna pick? You’re gonna pick Peter.

Yet, the tradition is consistent. Mark wrote the Gospel, even though he had an association with Peter. It shows you how careful the tradition is about marking the authorship and where the credit comes from. So, to me, this alternative model that the author is made up is flawed and doesn’t work. In fact, I once asked a Jesus seminar scholar in a professional meeting about this. I said, „How do you explain Mark being the author of Mark’s gospel with the luminary theory? If you pick the luminary you’ve got the option of Peter sitting there because of the tradition. How do you explain the tradition says consistently ‘it’s Mark’? He was honest. His answer was, „That’s a very good question.”

Why were the Gospels written in the first place?

The Gospels were written to pass on the testimony of the apostles about Jesus by those who walked and talked with Him. In fact, it’s interesting that Justin Martyr, in the middle of the second century, calls the Gospels ‘Apostolic Memoirs’. I think that’s a very good title. We’re so used to calling them gospels, we don’t think about what they are. And so, they actually are the memories, the recording of the memories, the impression that the apostles had as a result of their experience with Jesus.

And, it’s an attempt to keep alive that voice of the early generations, to the rest of the church, for posterity. That’s what the Gospels are. And, the reason they’re written 30 years down the road is not because you wanna let time pass so you can let the tradition develop. The reason they’re written 30 years down the road is you’re gonna lose your eye witnesses. And so, now you wanna record the testimony for posterity cause you’re losing the live  voice, which in an oral culture was very, very important. It’s like what historians are doing today with holocaust survivors. They record them. Why do they record them? Because that generation is passing away and they wanna have that record for posterity.

Are these ancient documents and gospels unique in ancient literature?

The roots for the kind of writing that it is has come out of the Roman Greco biography drama, which highlights the thinking of someone and their great actions. And, that’s exactly what you have in the Gospels. A fellow named Richard Burridge has a study called ‘What is the Gospel?’ In the midst of doing that he compared it to the literary biographies in the Greco Roman world layout with the ways the Gospels’ layout saying, „This is a very close genre comparison in terms of what we’re getting.” So, the kind of lietrature that we’re dealing with wouldn’t be a surprise to someone that had a literary background in the Greco Roman world.

What about passages where disciples were not eyewitnesses, like Jesus’s trial?

There are lots of lines of witnesses where the disciples themselves are not present. I like to say, christians don’t struggle with this question, they say, „Jesus rose from the dead, Jesus was there and He knew what was said.” But, for someone who isn’t a christian and for whom resurrection is a question, that answer doesn’t work. So, the question is, „Are there other witnesses?” And the answer is, „Absolutely.”

You’ve got Paul, the chief persecutor of the church as Jesus was dying and as he (Paul) was converted. He certainly knew what the Jewish position on Jesus was. Joseph of Arimathea, who is a member of the counsel, who supplied the burial ground for Jesus’s grave, the tomb, and he certainly knew what was going on there as a member of the council. Even more importantly, someone suggested to me during this trip, while I was in New Zealand, – these luminaries have servants and people around them at events. They might be a source of information. That’s certainly a possibility.

And then, the last option that you find interesting is that there was kind of family feud going on between the 30’s and the 60’s Between the family of Anas, the high priestly family and bishop of Judaism and Jesus’s family because Caiaphas, his son in law was priest when Jesus was crucified and helped to pursue the catching of Jesus and his giving over to Pilate. And then, Anas the second was responsible  for the death of James, Jesus’s brother in ’60. So, these families would have been debating in Jerusalem, who best represented Judaism. Jerusalem had about 25-75,000 people at this time, being a small town. So, in the midst of this public debate, the positions of these two sides would have become very evident and would have become more pronounced. So, there are actually multiple ways to witnesses, particularly for this important event of the jewish examination of Jesus that would have become public.

Darrell Bock – The Unique Jesus Story from CPX on Vimeo.

Related articles

Oral traditions: a reason to trust the Gospels – DTS Prof. Darrell Bock

While some people question the reliability of the bible’s accounts of Jesus’ life, Prof. Darrell Bock of Dallas Theological Seminary argues that a proper understanding of oral tradition gives good reason to find them trustworthy.

Bock: People sometime compare story telling to Chinese whispers or the telephone game… that’s not the only model that’s at work in ancient times. There’s another model that Kenneth Bailey, a missionary to the Bedouins, who lived in an oral culture in the last century. He reported how they passed on material and he said that is was in an informal, but in a controlled way. Informal meant that there weren’t official story tellers. Anyone could tell the story. But, the controlling part was that there were elders or senior people, that if the story drifted too much from what the story was, would correct the storyteller and keep an eye on it.

And that’s exactly the kind of model we see in the early church. We have the apostles who knew Jesus and were a part of His ministry very early on overseeing the tradition and so we get stories that have some flexibility in detail. Just like a couple might mention their courtship in detail, but mention different details. But, at the same time there’s the gist of the story that’s the same. That’s what we see in the Gospel variation and that consistent core. And, that’s probably what drives the way orality worked in the first century. So, it’s not as wild and free floating as Chinese whispers.

….I think the gist of the story is the key point. And the key point of the story is, did they get, fundamentally, who Jesus claimed to be right? And the emphasis of the New Testament is that Jesus is unique. The point is they would have been on the mark, basically, knowing who Jesus was and what it was that He was saying about Himself. So, to claim that He was just a prophet, when He was going around saying, „I’m at the center of God’s program. I’m the annointed One and God’s gonna exalt Me.” The gist of the story means they’re gonna get those categories right.

….we have terrific textual evidence of what was written back then. That’s the first thing. The text is solid. And the second thing is that this line of tradition from multiple witnesses is telling us very clearly what christians believed about Jesus. Now, a person could choose to believe that or not believe that. That’s a judgment you make about the contentBut, I don’t think you can challenge that this is what christians believed in the first century. That comes through the materials loud and clear.

Oral Tradition: a reason to trust the gospels from CPX on Vimeo.

Darrell L. Bock & Dr. Richard Taylor – ‘Jesus’ Wife’ papyri fragment at Dallas Theological Seminary

If you are not familiar with this supposed archaeological find (the fragment itself  has not been authenticated as of yet) please read the Tyndale House statement below the video.

Dr Darrell L. Bock (photo on left) – Senior Research Professor of New Testament Studies and recently appointed Executive Director for Christian Leadership and Cultural Engagements along with Dr. Richard Taylor (photo on right), Professor of Old testament Studies and Director of the PHD Studies Program, discuss the recent  ‘Jesus wife’ fragment at Dallas Theological Seminary. Dr. Richard Taylor is also an expert on the Coptic language used in the fragment in question.

Tyndale House comments on the fragment

Originally posted September 19, 2012. This is starting to snowball in the news, so I thought I would post this email (Tyndale House encourages the forwarding of it) for clarification.


Did Jesus have a wife?

The Web is by now awash with stories of an ancient text in which Jesus says ‘my wife’. The story which broke yesterday in the New York Times and some other sources, is being carried today by outlets too numerous to list. Some of the reporting is responsible, but not all. Consider this extract from The Daily Mail:

“If genuine, the document casts doubt on a centuries old official representation of Magdalene as a repentant whore and overturns the Christian ideal of sexual abstinence.”

We are of course in a context where there is so much ignorance of basic facts about Christianity that even when the media properly relay facts they get completely distorted and misunderstood in popular perception. This can be seen in the way derivative media put spin on the story and in the online comments below the news items.

Here we try to establish a few facts.

The scholarly article upon which almost all knowledge of the fragment is based is here.

What do we know from this?
What’s in a name?

First, let’s start with the name. The scholar involved, Professor Karen King of Harvard, has decided to call this The Gospel of Jesus’s Wife. However, it might more appropriately be named The Fragment about Jesus’s Relations, since there’s no evidence that it was called a gospel and the text mentions at least two family members. Of course, such a name would not generate the same publicity. Despite this unfortunate choice of name, Professor King is to be commended for publishing a good photograph and detailed scholarly analysis of the fragment simultaneously with the press release. Usually in the case of controversial text the media hype comes long before the availability of the text.

Genuine or forgery?

Professor King has provided pictures of the papyrus, but it is not publicly known who owns it, or where it came from. If genuine, it almost certainly came from Egypt because that is where papyri like this are found.

Because it was not found in situ it is obviously possible to doubt its genuineness. Scholars at Tyndale House think that, on the basis of the limited evidence currently available, it is possible it is genuine, though there are good reasons for scepticism – see the comments of Dr Christian Askeland, an expert in Coptic manuscripts here.

It is written in Coptic, the language of Egypt which descended from the even earlier language of the Hieroglyphs. Coptic is Egyptian written in the Greek alphabet with a few extra letters. Because Coptic was only emerging as a written language in the third century and papyrus went out of use in the seventh century the 8 cm x 4 cm fragment has to be dated some time from the third to the seventh century and the scholars involved with this fragment have stated that it is fourth century on the basis of the handwriting.

Since we have virtually no firmly dated Coptic handwriting, this date is just an educated guess.

Then we turn to the date of the contents. Here Professor King puts the text in the late second century, but all that we really know is that the text is at least as old as the manuscript.

What does it say?This is King’s translation of the text, with square brackets used where the text does not survive:FRONT:1 ] “not [to] me. My mother gave to me li[fe…”
2 ] The disciples said to Jesus, “.[
3 ] deny. Mary is worthy of it[
4 ]……” Jesus said to them, “My wife . .[
5 ]… she will be able to be my disciple . . [
6 ] Let wicked people swell up … [
7] As for me, I dwell with her in order to . [
8] an image [BACK:1 ] my moth[er
2 ] three [
3 ] … [
4 ] forth which … [
5 ] (illegible ink traces)

We believe this to be a largely reliable translation. But is it evidence that Jesus had a wife? The answer is an emphatic ‘no’. Not even Karen King is claiming that it is, though it’s inevitable that some of the news outlets will present it otherwise.

What we have here is a typical sort of text which arose after Christianity had become very popular and when derivatives of Christianity began to emerge. The language of the text is very similar to the Gospel of Thomas, sayings 101 and 114, and the Gospel of Thomas saying 101 shows influence of Luke 14:26, as the Gospel of Thomas does elsewhere. This way of speaking belongs to the mid-second century or later, in other words generations later than the books of the New Testament.

We asked Dr Simon Gathercole, an expert on apocryphal gospels and Senior Lecturer in New Testament in the University of Cambridge, for his comments.

He concluded: „Harvard Professor Karen King, who is the person who has been entrusted with the text, has rightly warned us that this does not say anything about the historical Jesus. She is correct that “its possible date of composition in the second half of the second century, argues against its value as evidence for the life of the historical Jesus”. But she is also right that this is a fascinating discovery which offers us a window into debates about sex and marriage in the early church, and the way Jesus could be adapted to play a part in a particular debate. If it is genuine.

You can read his fuller analysis here

Please feel free to forward this email.

Best wishes,

Peter Williams,
Warden, Tyndale House, Cambridge.

Related posts

What are people saying about Jesus – Darrell Bock and Daniel Wallace at Dallas Theological Seminary

Published on May 11, 2012 by 

Select faculty discuss contemporary trends in culture and theology. Today’s guests are Dr. Darrell Bock, Dr. Dan Wallace, and Dr. John Grassmick.


Darrell Bock – How to present the Bible to a culture that does not appreciate it for the precious revelation that it is – Dallas Seminary podcast + A new book

Link to Darrell Bock academic books here. Link to Darrell Bock website here. Also, see at bottom of page Darrell L. Bock‘s new book – Release Date: 06/04/2012 „A Theology of Luke and Acts”. God’s Promised Program, Realized for All Nations. Series: Biblical Theology of the New Testament Series

Even though we are like the millions around us, we are also different. Different from the inside. The Bible is profound because in its message and through it’s Spirit, it changes us and makes us into something different, something privileged, what the Bible calls saints. We’re not talking about the Bible in abstract, we’re talking about the Bible in practice. The most profound way to present the story  (personally) is by being an audio-visual of what God is about, life lived from the inside out so it shows itself to be engaged with all of life. That’s why we are called it’s ambassadors of the message. That’s the portfolio – showing the new creation by being the new creation and it’s more than an abstraction of theology.

Dr. Darrell Bock, Research Professor of New Testament Studies; Professor of Spiritual Development and Culture, DTS, explains that he believes the Bible because it is the defense of the message I have as an ambassador of Christ that allows to keep the point. It is my ambassadorial dossier. Published on Mar 30, 2012 by 

Dr. Darrell Bock is professor of New testament Studies and professor of Spiritual Development and Culture. Darrell has earned national and international recognition as a Humboldt Scholar, an honor program at Tubingen University in Germany for his work in historical Jesus studies , especially in Jesus’ examination before the Jewish leadership at His trial. He also has done extensive commentary work on the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts. In 2001 Dr Bock has served as President of the Evangelical Theological Society and he continues to serve as Editor at large for Christianity Today magazine.

Darrell L. Bock – Why I believe the Bible

I am here to talk abut this: It’s the Bible! We are here to study it, we’re here to know it and hopefully reflect in our lives what it teaches. For us, it is a privileged book: inspired, inerrant, the very word of God. I deeply believe that for a host of reasons. But today I want to explore a different question.

How do I preach a book I believe is privileged to a culture that does not believe it is privileged?

 It is no secret that in our culture the Bible is no longer a privileged book. People challenge it. Discussion surrounds it. Everywhere, there are efforts to argue that it is anything but inspired. So, I want to explain why the Bible is important, and even why I believe in the Bible and how to present it to a culture that does not appreciate it for the precious revelation that it is. You might think that I’ll launch into an apologetic as to why I think that the Bible is inerrant, 645,223 reasons why I believe the Bible. I believe those things deeply but that’s not where I want to go.

Rather I want to make a case that where the Bible is not a privileged book, it speaks to reality in a way that shows it is privileged. It comes from the heart of God. It is self disclosing, not merely because of the facts in it, but because of the profound divine, human account it gives. My homiletical idea is simply this: In a world where the Bible is not privileged, it is the profundity of the Bible’s message that shows the Bible is the fully inspired word of God.

Profundity revealed with faithfulness discloses the uniqueness of God’s word and it addresses our own reality at the same time, privileging God and His creation, at the same time. Privilege is revealed in profundity, in declared and lived profundity. But, I start with a contrast, a meta narrative, told with humor, which show where much of our world is and what culture thinks about why we are here. Bock shows a video clip from „Everybody loves Raymond”. „Who knows why we’re here?” That’s what the popular show declares.

It’s not very different then when Seneca spoke centuries ago; the stoic roman philosopher who lived in the first century, at the same time as Jesus, said this about life and death. In effect, it all doesn’t mean very much. We’ll just have to see how it all turns out in the end. Listen to the words of Seneca in his letter 26, as he muses about life and death: „I imagine to myself that the testing time is drawing near, that the day that is going to see judgement pronounced on the whole of my past life has actually arrived and I take a look at myself and address myself in these terms: All that I’ve done and said up til now, counts for nothing. My showing today, besides being heavily varnished over is of paltry value and reliability as a guarantee of my spirit. I’m going to leave it to death to settle what progress I’ve made. Without anxiety then, I’m making ready for the day when tricks and disguises will be put away and I shall come to a verdict on myself, determining whether the courageous attitudes I adopt are really felt or just so many words. And whether or not the defiant challenges I’ve hurled at fortune have been mere pretense and pantomime.”

Not much profound here, either. Just make the best of what you can in life and see what it will add up to. Hope for the best. Know death comes to all of us and we do not know when, but in the end, nothing will matter. That conclusion is the result of a life lived disconnected from the Creator and from the creation. It’s not a very profound declaration. It’s an empty manifesto, echoing what Ecclesiastes says to us in much of its message: It’s all empty. The net result is not much in terms of real direction of why we are here whether we trust Raymond or Seneca. But at least, Seneca was contemplating the options. Contrast that effort at reflection to our own culture. What some have called: A super flat culture.

Listen to this analysis of our modern and post modern culture by Australian pastor Mark Sayers: Such a culture is why people often miss what the Bible has to offer. And here’s what he says about the super flat culture we live in: We are offered a culture that is a million miles wide, in terms of opportunities, freedoms and consumer choice, yet, it is spiritually an inch deep. Our spiritual voice is being strangled. Our culture is spiritually super flat because of 3 main reasons I can discern:

  1. Any big discussion about deep and spiritual existential issues of life are off the agenda in the public square.
  2. Western culture is a spiritually flat culture in which our need for mystery, transcendence, revelation and a sense of „the other” is repressed.
  3. Our culture is a culture in which everything in life is viewed through a lens of suspicion

The combination of these factors present us with never before experienced missional challenges. They are also the reason so many Christian young adults are choosing to leave active faith. He goes on to say: In a super flat culture where nothing matters, we escape into obsessions and hobbies, interests that bear little or no consequence. In a commodified culture, we move and shift around meaning, giving way to things that do not deserve mountains of time and attention. The 21st century will be a century marked by conspicuous consumption, and a flagrant misuse of time.With religion off the agenda, our culture finds new avenues of devotion and distraction. Instead of moving us towards relationship and people, the eminent, super flat culture pushes us towards things. Millions of hours in the 21st century will be spent working through DVD/TV series, scanning social network sites, gorging on celebrity gossip, downloading music, flipping through home magazines and playing computer games. Things will take precedence over people. Meaningless activities will overtake our lives.

There’s nothing wrong with interest in hobbies in the right place, but the 21st century  culture will gorge on such activities. The real reason for human existence that have sat front and center of the human consciousness have been in the super flat, eminent world shoved aside. They have been too heavy to be carried on the road. Instead we buzz along the surface of life, never venturing below the surface. That’s why he calls it the super flat culture in a book that is coming out, called „The Road Trip”.

The best way to get to the Bible’s depth is to allow it to tell its story, clearly and powerfully

In the face of such missional challenges, the best way to get to the Bible’s depth is to allow it to tell its story, clearly and powerfully. We can show what it looks like by how we live. So, we live in a world that’s not sure why it’s here. The Bible has a profound and completely different message to tell and it says that you and I are ambassadors of that key message. The Scriptures reveal needs all people have. And so, the book of privilege gives us a place of privilege and in the process tells the story of why we are here.

That is the major reason I believe the Bible. It has a profound story to tell that the world does not know. It has a profound story to tell that tells us human beings why we have a story to tell and it’s a story that people may be slow to hear  and even conditioned not to hear. But you are here (at DTS) to learn how to tell it, noting the extent to which God has gone to return us to Himself. It’s a profound story that says God supplies what we lack and so the bridge to Him can be rebuilt, because He rebuilds it by his grace. It’s a positive message, not a negative one and it’s not about a mere momentary transaction, nor is it about avoiding something, it’s about reconnecting to the living God. Sometimes, when I hear the Gospel presented in the church, I think of the old actor Jimmy Cagney. Jimmy Cagney used to say: „You dirty rat. You shouldn’t be doing that. You’re the one that killed my brother”. Sometimes I listen to the Gospel message and I hear this tone that comes across. It’s a negative tone, it’s not a very positive tone. It’s an accusatory tone as if we have to convince people that they are sinners. Most people are quite aware of it, they just don’t want to face up to it.

In the midst of doing that, the message comes across negative and I ask myself: Where’s the Gospel in that? Other times we present the Gospel in such a way a kind of like Neo in the matrix, where we’re dodging bullets. And the Gospel IS about avoiding a negative, a very hot place. In the midst of presenting the Gospel as if it’s avoiding something, we completely lack to present something: That the Gospel is about gaining everything. It’s about reconnecting with the living God for life.

That was a huge introduction. There is one simple text that I want to return to and it’s in 2 Corinthians 5. This one verse leads into the profundity that I am talking about. It’s a simple verse. It says: „Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making His plea through us. we plead for you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God”. I want to make 3 points out of this text:

  1. Our position: Ambassadors. We are representatives of God in all that we say and do. We have been given a very privileged calling. I want to share an experience back when I was dealing with the DaVinci code. I got invited to a Bible study at the United Nations. It was an interesting experience. I had been there before, through the many metal detection checks, but this time I was an invited person so I got direct access into the middle of one of the key rooms at the UN. I was interacting with some of the ambassadors, who came from all kinds of countries. I had direct access, an access I normally don’t have. When I think about this text, I think about access that I permanently have to the living God, to represent Him in a task that is much greater than anything the United Nations ever takes up. We have a uniquely privileged position in being called to ministry. We also have a representational role. We don’t have to go through any metal detectors because God is the one who called us and we have a rare privilege to represent Him in a world that needs a profound message, that is the Scripture.
  2. The tone. Look at the text: „Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ”. It’s as though God were making His plea through us: „we plead with you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God”. Much of the sound that comes out of the church today, I am sad to say, is crass. It’s harsh. Now, there is a role in challenging the culture. There’s a role that’s necessary in that. But, if it isn’t balanced with the love of God and the compassion of Christ and the sacrifice and service that God extends even to those who reject Him. If we do not love our enemies, as Christ said, and enter into a plea with the world, then the road she is traveling down is horribly self destructive. You do not honor the tone of this text. This text is a summary text that kind of summarizes the entire message of everything we’ve been given in the portfolio that God has handed to us. It says we are keepers and passers on of His profound message of Salvation. So our tone is one of an invitation and of a pleading. My hope is that wherever you minister, once you are done here (at DTS), and one day that eschatological moment will happen, my hope and prayer is that your tone will be an invitation into the love of God and the grace of God, and the care of God, and the compassion of God and the severe mercy of God.
  3. Reconciliation – Reconciliation assumes a break in a relationship. What’s really exciting about the message that the Scripture has for us, is that God has given the provision to fix that break. The exhortation is: Be reconciled to God. We don’t have to reconcile ourselves to Him, we simply enter into the reconciliation that He has provided. That is the beauty of a passive verb. God’s the one who does it and that reconciliation brings life and enablement. In fact, the profound message of the Scripture is that we can get back to life by getting back to God. It means knowing Him. In His final prayer, almost like a last will and testament, when Jesus is praying before He goes to the cross in john 17:3, He gives thanks for the fact  that this is eternal life: to know the Father and know the Son. Or in another summary text in Romans 1:16 we’re told that Paul is not ashamed of the Gospel because it is the power of God unto salvation. It’s not just salvation, it’s the power of God unto salvation and if you read Romans, you will see that in that passage power is expressed by taking someone who is dead in trespasses and sins, an absolute corpse, justifying them , raising them up, giving them a position in which the Spirit of God is in them, so that by chapter 8 they’re walking in the will of God and there’s no need for law, because they’re following what God asks them to do. They’re reconnected to the Father. They’ve come back to life. If we read texts in Luke, what we see is that John, the Baptist prepared the world for this message and the coming of Christ by being given a calling to turn Israel back to her God. What’s interesting, when you read that text, in context- take a look at Luke 1:16-17, you will see that in turning themselves back to God, in the next verse the point is made that fathers are turned back to children and the disobedient are turned to obedience. We tend to think of repentance as something that happens privately between us and God. But the Scripture is reflecting that repentance is something that happens between us and God so that it impacts all the relationships that we have. So much so, that when we come to Luke 3 and John the Baptists is asked: What should we do ?as people enter into the Baptism that he represents. Every answer has to do, not with the person, how they are relating to God, but how the person is relating to their neighbor. What we see is an ethical core, a profundity to the Scripture that says: By relating properly to God, you not only fix that, you fix everything around you, in terms of your relationships. So we issue a plea: Know God, so you can have life. Know God so you can truly love others. It is simple, it is profound. The profound book tells a privileged story, of a privileged people who know why they are here. We tell the story by declaration and we tell it by representation.

Even though we are like the millions around us, we are also different. Different from the inside. The Bible is profound because in its message and through it’s Spirit, it changes us and makes us into something different, something privileged, what the Bible calls saints. We’re not talking about the Bible in abstract, we’re talking about the Bible in practice. The most profound way to present the story  (personally) is by being an audio-visual of what God is about, life lived from the inside out so it shows itself to be engaged with all of life. That’s why we are called it’s ambassadors of the message. That’s the portfolio – showing the new creation by being the new creation and it’s more than an abstraction of theology.

In the Nicene creed, God is powerfully confessed. He is confessed to a certain degree, in the abstract. I love the Nicene creed. We recite it at our church. But, left to itself, abstract theology and teaching can have a hole. You see, there’s not a word in the Nicene creed about how we live. Theology without ethics and spiritual formation is not a theology that really reveals the profundity of Scripture in the new life because life as it was designed to be lived, WAS designed to be lived and to show itself. It has to move past the cover of a super flat culture that might exist if we just play with the iPad. So tell the story, live the story , show by what you say  how profound Scripture is. Reveal it in word and in deed, reveal its reality and show that it is inspired by God by showing how God changes lives. In a world where the Bible is not privileged, the best way to make the case for the Scripture is to call attention to its profound attention to life’s core realities, to live its truth. Privilege is revealed in declared and lived profundity. That is the ultimate assignment and it is a final exam we will all take. We represent our King in the world, we are to take up the call and you shave the privileged role to take this privileged message to point people to the privilege of knowing Him. That message will be found nowhere else. You won’t find it from modern culture and you won’t find it from Seneca. So, believe it, preach it, live it. The message of Scripture is far different from Seneca and it can be summarized in the last verse of the hymn we sang at the beginning of this message:

No power of hell, no scheme of man
Can ever pluck me from His hand
Til He returns or calls me home
Here in the power of Christ I’ll stand.

A Theology of Luke and Acts

God’s Promised Program, Realized for All Nations

Series: Biblical Theology of the New Testament Series

Release Date: 06/04/2012

Synopsis:A Theology of Luke and Acts–the second volume in Zondervan’s Biblical Theology of the New Testament Series–offers an in-depth analysis of these two books. Examining Lukan themes, language, and the books’ context within the Bible, Darrell L. Bock offers an indispensable resource to biblical scholars.  SEE SECOND VIDEO ON THIS PAGE for more. Order here.

Link to Darrell Bock academic books here.

Link to Darrell Bock website here.

Darrell L. Bock on the Gospel and Holy Spirit in Luke and Acts

…and here’s Darrell Bock talking about his new book „A Theology of Luke and Acts”. Leading New Testament scholar Darrell L. Bock, author of „A Theology of Luke and Acts” chats with Mark L. Strauss in this clip (5 of 5) about key topics related to his highly anticipated new work. „A Theology of Luke and Acts” explores the theology of Luke’s gospel and the book of Acts. In his biblical writings, Luke records the story of God working through Jesus to usher in a new era of promise and Spirit-enablement so that the people of God can be God’s people even in the midst of a hostile world. It is a message that still fits the church today. Bock both covers major Lukan themes and sets forth the distinctive contribution of the Luke-Acts collection to the New Testament and the canon of Scripture, providing readers with an in-depth and holistic grasp of Lukan theology in the larger context of the Bible. Find out more:…. Published on Apr 27, 2012 by 

Related articles

‪Darrell Bock on N.T. Wright’s New Perspective & Eschatological Language‬‏

Darrell Bock is Research Professor of New Testament Studies and Professor of Spiritual Development and Culture; click on the picture for Dr. Bock’s faculty page on the Dallas Theological Seminary’s website.

There is a lot of commentary on N.T.Wright’s ‘New Perspective’, a topic I am reading about from different, competent sources, who are faithful to the Word of God. This is Darrell Bock’s lecture on the subject.

In the 2 part video Darrell Bock discusses N.T.Wright’s „new perspective” of seeing Jesus and Paul through the lens of 1st century  Judaism (through A.D.70) rather than through Christian critique of the New Testament or through the lens of the Reformation.

The lecture is given at Liberty University.    Uploaded by on Youtube.

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There is a short question and answer session in the middle of  this video, followed by a discussion of Eschatological Language.

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2/2 Darrell Bock on N.T. Wright‬‏
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What is the Gospel? Darrell Bock moderates

This is a panel moderated by Dallas Theological Seminary’s Dr. Darrell Bock.

Participants –

Length 73 minutes. Subjects discussed – gospel, word vs. works, what are we saved from and what are we saved for and how to present the Gospel.

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What is the Gospel? – Panel with Darrel Bock, posted with vodpod

What is the Gospel – A theological debate with Darrell Bock and Bob Wilkin

transcript (via)

here is an excerpt of a question and answer at the back end of this debate to give you an example of the wisdom you can glean from reading/watching men of God debate from the Word:

Dr. Wilkin:
I’m not sure I can completely repeat it [unrecorded question 18 from the audience], but the point is, when the nation of Israel is rejecting Jesus as the Christ, why don’t the apostles stand up and say, “He really is the Christ. All you need to do is to believe in Him to get into the kingdom”? Something like that. “You don’t need to bow to Him, you just need to believe in Him.”

Well, you see the issue there in the first place is not that they were going to believe if you suddenly said, “Well, you don’t have to bow to Him.”
They’d say, “No, we don’t have to bow to Him. We’re going to crucify Him.” You see, that wasn’t the issue. They didn’t believe He was the Christ.

And if you don’t believe Jesus is the Christ, you don’t have eternal life. To the later question on why don’t we have more pressing from Jesus or from the disciples? My feeling is, as you read for example in John chapter 12, He said He hardened their hearts so that they could not believe. You see, they kept rejecting, rejecting, rejecting, and so God finally hardened their hearts. And I also hold the view … have you ever thought about why is it that Scripture doesn’t come out and have 500 pages saying let’s explain exactly that lordship salvation is wrong and the free grace position is right and give you hundreds of pages where it would be so clear, you can’t miss it?

Well, in the first place, it is so clear you can’t miss it. But in the second place, the reason we don’t have hundreds of pages is because God is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him. And God has set up the Scriptures in such a way that it’s possible to be confused. And you can teach just about anything you want from the Scriptures if you want to twist them and turn them.

Now there are some very well intentioned people who are twisting and turning the Scriptures. And I believe that the Lord is not trying to make it to where it is absolutely impossible to twist the Scriptures. He’s making it possible that if a
person wants to be deceived, they can. And the nation of Israel wanted to be deceived, and they were.

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Mesaj prof.dr.Darrell Bock (Dallas USA) cu Cristian Barbosu despre cele 36 de evanghelii ‘pierdute’ la Bis. Penticostala Betel Crangasi

Profesorul Darrell Bock care a predat cursuri la Facultatea Baptista din Romania, a vizitat si Biserica Penticostala Crangasi din Bucurest impreuna cu Cristian Barbosu, unde a avut un mesaj despre evangheliile false si numite ‘pierdute’ in data de  Ianuarie 28,2011:
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