ETIOPIA: Unul Dintre Cele Mai Vechi Exemplare al Bibliei a Fost Descoperit intr-o Manastire Izolata

Oamenii de stiinta spun ca textul antic datează la aproximativ 800 de ani înainte de aparitia versiunii King James, făcându-l unul dintre cele mai vechi exemplare ale Bibliei.

Etiopia – (CBN News). Cercetătorii au descoperit intr-o manastire etiopeana, o Biblie veche cu ilustratii, dezvăluind astfel o tradiție bogata a creștinismului din aceasta țară din Africa de Vest.

Ele sunt numite Evangheliile Garima, numite dupa un calugar care a venit în Etiopia în 494 d.Hr. de la Constantinopol. Frumos ilustrate, paginile sunt vii și pastrate intact.

„Multe dintre aceste relicve creștine vechi pot fi atinse doar prin mersul pe jos și prin catarare, pentru a se ajunge la aceste mănăstiri izolate deoarece drumurile în aceste regiuni muntoase sunt limitate”, au spus cercetatorii publicatiei Naij.com. „ Evangheliile Garima au fost ținute la un loc inalt și uscat, ceea ce a ajutat să se păstreze toți acești ani și sunt ținute în întuneric, fapt pentru care culorile au ramas in stare proaspătă.”

Oamenii de stiinta spun ca textul antic datează la aproximativ 800 de ani înainte de versiunea King James, făcându-l unul dintre cele mai vechi exemplare ale Bibliei. Cartea a fost cel mai probabil scrisa de un călugăr pe nume Garima cândva în jurul anilor 350-650 dH.

Descoperirea este o reamintire a conectiei adanci a Etiopiei la creștinism. Etiopia a fost una dintre primele țări africane care a primit Evanghelia. Faptele Apostolilor 8:27 menționează un om etiopian care s-a intalnit cu Filip și dupa aceea s-a întors în Etiopia unde a împărtășit Evanghelia.

Cartea antică va fi pastrata la Fondul Patrimoniului Etiopian. Organizația speră ca mai tarziu să prezinte Biblia în mănăstirea unde a fost scrisă și păstrată timp de secole.

Traducer Agnus Dei – SURSA – http://www.breakingchristiannews.com/articles/display_art.html?ID=18793

Reclame

Descoperirea unei construcţii misterioase din vremea Templului lui Solomon

Un pilon misterios descoperit într-un tunel aflat sub o livadă din Palestina, undeva în apropriere de Bethlehem, se bucură de tot mai multă atenţie, în ciuda încercărilor depuse de autorităţi pentru a-l ţine secret.

În februarie, un ghid turistic care îndruma un grup de turişti printr-un tunel în Cisiordania, nu departe de Ierusalim, a descoperit un pilon sculptat. Pilonul se potrivea cu obiectele arhitecturale din secolele IX – VIII î.e.n., din vremea Templului lui Solomon, din Ierusalim.

Când ghidul Binyamin Tropper a anunţat oficialii, a fost surprins să constate că autorităţile l-au sfătuit să uite de eveniment. „Mi-au spus: «ştim despre el, păstrează tăcerea»”, a declarat Tropper.

Obiectul descoperit se află în regiunea Cisiordania unde există conflicte politice, lângă un sat arab, în timp ce pământul este deţinut de un palestinian. Motivul pentru care autorităţile nu doresc să acţioneze ar putea fi acela că excavările ar putea alimenta o serie de conflicte politice.

Când a realizat că nu se va face nimic pentru excavarea acestui obiect, despre care Tropper crede că este de o importanţă majoră, ghidul a relatat evenimentele presei. Cu toate acestea, el nu a dezvăluit şi locaţia obiectului, tocmai pentru a evita eventualitatea unui furt.

La începutul acestei luni, mai mulţi arheologi israelieni au mers să inspecteze situl în cauză. Printre ei s-a numărat şi Yosef Garfinkel, profesor de arheologie la Universitatea din Israel. Concluzia lui Garfinkel a fost că, fără îndoială, rămăşiţele datează din perioada Primului Templu.

Partea superioară a pilonului, este un tip de capitel proto-aeolic. Acest stil datează de acum 2.800 de ani. Pilonul marchează intrarea într-un tunel subteran de apă cu o lungime de 228 metri, o structură complexă creată probabil de un guvern. În perioada în care a fost creat pilonul, zona era condus de regi iudei.

Existenţa acestui tunel mare de apă sugerează prezenţa unui mare palat prin apropierea sitului, spune Garfinkel. „Construcţia este excelentă. Cu siguranţă acolo există ceva important din vremuri biblice, din secolul IX – VIII î.e.n”.

(sursa)

Video of the Week – Herod’s and Solomon’s Temples – virtual reconstructions and the Implication of the Ark of the Covenant on the Future Temple

Click here for Previous Videos of the Week PAGE

Jerusalem Temple – Herod

First Demo of Herods temple in Jerusalem; The Reconstruction of the Herodian Sanctuary According to the Writings of Josephus Flavius. Based on the Doctoral Dissertation of Dr. Yehoshua Peleg, department of Land of Israel Studies and Archaeology, faculty of Jewish Studies, Bar-Ilan University, Supported by the Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem

Studies, Prof. Joshua Schwartz, Director
Project Initiator and Project Director: Yehuda Vinograd
Production: Atom-mc
Temple Utensils and Priests: Shilo Vinograd
Project site: http://atom-mc.com/Clients/Temple/

Uploaded by   semnalat/primit de la Teofil Lemuel Nedelcu

Solomons Temple

A virtual reconstruction of the temple built by Solomon.

Uploaded by

Ark of the Covenant – Lost or Hidden Away

If the ark did exist, where is it now? A group of rabbis claim they believe they have found the room that was the holy of holies in a 1981 excavation, but authorities stopped their excavation and walled off the area. Another rabbi states (back in 2007) that out of the 93 categories of vessels required for use at the Temple, they have now produced 60 of them based on the complicated nuances of Jewish law. The ark however, will not be reproduced as they believe it is sitting under the Al Aqsa mosque in the room they have discovered in the archaeological dig at that site in 1981.

Does this generation really want the truth? Part 1 – a message especially for (University) students

Narration for video below byRavi Zacharias, visiting scholar at Cambridge University,and  frequent speaker to University students at Harvard, Princeton, and Oxford.

His ministry’s vision is fourfold: Evangelism, Apologetics, Spiritual Disciplines, and Training that comes alongside the Church or concerned Christians worldwide so that the mandate of I Peter 3:15 might be fulfilled—to set apart Christ in our hearts as Lord and always be prepared to give a reason for the hope that is within us, with gentleness and respect, all for the glory of God.

NARRATION (from video) PART 1- The problem in Universities

What has happened to truth in our day? Where did we lose out, where did we go wrong? What has become the malady that best describes why we are on the wrong track? This arena of lies and falsehood where we are risking the whole next generation with a false sense of entitlement.

Skepticism is the hallmark of University education today. You can go to campus after campus and they deny even the very possibility of ‘knowing’. Fascinating, isn’t it? You come out of the University education at the end of it basically saying, “You cannot believe anything! You cannot know anything!

Intent is prior to content. Question is: Does this generation really want the truth? Revelation displaced by reason. Truth subverted by agnosticism. Rationalism fails, existentialism fails and lastly the propositionalism (is) replaced by the visual.

This is possibly the darkest reality of our time. So the young scholar sitting before the professional lectern is absolutely convinced that truth is nearly relative and what has happened is that he (the young scholar) has lost sight of the fact of what Jesus said about the eye. He said, “Let your eye be single, the eye is the lamp of the body”. William Blake put it in these words, “This life’s dim windows of the soul distorts the heavens from pole to pole and goads you to believe a lie, when you see ‘with’ and not ‘through’ the eye”.

We are meant to see through the eye with the conscience, we are told to see ‘with the eye’ devoid of a conscience.  And in reality, nothing is so beautiful as the good, nothing so monotonous and boring as evil, but in our imagination it’s the other way around; ‘fictional evil’ is very intriguing, attractive and full of charm. The poles have been reversed, good has become boring, evil has become intriguing.

Author of Video shows Names of Persons and Locations mentioned in Bible verses, and pictures of artifacts from archaeological digs which centuries  later proved the existence of aforementioned.

Part 2 is coming tomorrow.

Does archaeology support the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke)? Part I

Excerpted from James M. Arlandson

Inerrantist Wayne Grudem writes:

… Our understanding of Scripture is never perfect, and this means that there may be cases where we will be unable to find a solution to a difficult passage at the present time. This may be because the linguistic, historical, or contextual evidence we need to understand the passage correctly is presently unknown to us.” (Systematic Theology, Zondervan, 1994, p. 99)

He wrote those words in the context of supposed contradictions in the Bible. But they can apply to archaeology and history and the Bible. His humility about our imperfect understanding of Scripture is refreshing.

The Synoptics and Scripture as a whole have often been shown to be right in matters of history. In fact, that’s what’s so remarkable about Scripture. Its authorship spans about 1,500 years. They lived in different regions and cultures and flowing, changing history, so the chances of their being wrong are high. However, there are so many things Scripture gets right includeing even simple things like where Jerusalem is located or the village of Capernaum being located on the Sea of Galilee, or the name of the god Baal or of a ruler like Pontius Pilate or Nebuchadnezzar.

The historical facts and data outside of the Gospels go a long way to support their historical reliability, and here is an excerpt of a massive body of work done by James M. Arlandson (it is also featured at Bible.org) :

Archaeology and the Bible have an uneasy relationship. Many textual scholars have little use for archaeology. Discoveries happen often, so the data change, whereas the written text is stable, by comparison. Plus, the stones, so to speak, are sometimes difficult to interpret in relation to the text.

Nonetheless, let’s bring onto the web what archaeologists are saying in their books.  Though I’m far from being an archaeologist, I decided to include some findings that are more or less stable (but see some of the examples, below). For me, the Biblical text and its historical reliability have been demonstrated again and again, so I don’t put myself on an emotional rollercoaster of extreme highs and lows, depending on this or that discovery.

(Here the author suggests to open up two separate windows; one with this link of map of Israel and the second with map of Jerusalem).

1. So  how  does  archaeology  relate  to  the  Synoptic  Gospels?

Let’s begin with a sad example – sad, but true. Jesus grieved over his prediction (Matt. 23:37, Luke 13:34) destruction of Jerusalem

Luke 21:20 says, “When you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near” (see Luke 19:42;Matt.24:15-20; Mark 13:14-19). Rome destroyed the temple and Jerusalem in AD 70. The suppression was led by Roman general Titus, son of the Emperor Vespasian (ruled 69-79), and Titus later ruled 79-81.

Closeup image from Arch of Titus- Menorrah and Temple goods being plundered.

The Arch of Titus stands at the highest point on the Via Sacra in Rome. The procession carved in marble shows the Roman General Titus returning victorious, having crushed the Jewish state, carrying the spoils of war stolen from the very Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

This wall relief on the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying spoils from the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The Temple Menorah* and the Table** of the Shewbread shown at an angle, both of solid gold, and the silver trumpets which called the Jews to the festivals. The Romans are in triumphal procession wearing laurel crowns and the ones carrying the Menorah have pillows on their shoulders. The soldiers carry signs commemorating the victories which Titus had won. This group of soldiers is just a few of the hundreds in the actual triumphal procession down Rome’s Sacred Way. The whole procession is about to enter the carved arch on the right which reveals the quadriga at the top, Titus on his 4-horsed chariot with soldiers. The Arch of Titus with its Menorah Relief are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it stands today as a testimony that the words of Jesus miraculously came true.

Jesus Weeps over Jerusalem (Luke 19:41-44)

41And when he drew near and saw the city, he wept over it, saying,  42 „Would that you, even you, had known on this day the things that make for peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. 43For the days will come upon you, when your enemies will set up a barricade around you and surround you and hem you in on every side 44 and tear you down to the ground, you and your children within you. And they will not leave one stone upon another in you, because you did not know the time of your visitation.”

(2) Inscription about Pontius Pilate

He is mentioned in all four Gospels, particularly at the trial of Jesus, but the inscription is dealt with here because the synoptic Gospels mention him. He authorized Jesus’ execution. In the inscription at Caesarea Maritima, on the Mediterranean coast, he is referred to as the prefect of Judea, which is the southern region that encompassed Jerusalem.

Click picture to read about this inscription.

Until recently, there was no contemporary evidence outside the Bible for Pilate’s existence (although Tacitus, Josephus, and Philo all wrote about him). Then in 1961, Italian archaeologists excavating the theatre at Caesarea found this stone inscription of Pontius Pilate. Coins have also been found dating from Pilate’s rule as governor.

You can click for more on Pontius Pilate and if you click on the picture on the right you can read more on the inscription that was excavated.

(3) The boy Jesus in the temple

In Luke 2:41-50, he is in the temple dialoging with the rabbis. He impressed them with his wisdom. Where did this dialogue take place?

The discovery of a stairway south of the southern wall of the Temple Mount makes it clear that it was here that the young Jesus amazed the rabbis by his knowledge. A fragment of an inscription found on the stairway, along with another fragment … mentions the elders (zeqenim). Probably a place was allotted to them. The Talmud refers to three tribunals in Jerusalem. One of these „used to sit at the gate of the Temple Mount … engaged in deliberations and expounding” … . (Barhat, p. 307)

But the most interesting evidence says in the Talmud (t.Sanhedrin 2.6) that Rabban Gamaliel (probable teacher of Paul) and the elders were sitting on the stairway, along with a scribe. Then the tractate goes on to reference the people of upper Galilee and lower Galilee (Dan Barhat, p. 307).

(Here is a link to pictures of the simulated reconstruction of the temple, these pictures are very useful in shedding a light on the Gospel events that took place there, especially notice how big the Temple structure was. For more/bigger pictures on the Temple Mount you can visit the UCLA site and the Jerusalem Archaeological Park which has interactive maps and material on persons and events; this site is worth book marking and studying Biblical history at leisure)

(4) A winepress, stone-walled terraces, and three towers

In all four Gospels, Jesus is called “Jesus of Nazareth.” In the Parable of the

Tenants, he says that “a man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a pit for the winepress and built a watchtower” (Mark 12:1, Matt.21:33) but  Luke 20:9 omits most of the elements). Since the 1990s these textual data have been confirmed by archaeology “less than half a mile from the center of first-century Nazareth” to the west … . “A winepress has been exposed, and beautifully constructed stone-walled terraces are now visible. Most importantly, three circular stone towers only about fifty feet [about 16m] apart now rise majestically above the rocky terrain” (Charlesworth, “Jesus Research,” p. 38).

(5) The farmers in the Parable of the Tenants

In this parable (Matt. 21:33-46, Mark 12:1-12, Luke 20:9-19), the landlord rents out his land to farmers. When he sends his servants to collect some of the produce or profits, the farmers beat them and eventually killed the landowner’s son.

So were the farmers peasants? From the larger contexts of rabbinic traditions, Greek papyri, a true-life story from Cicero himself (106-43 BC), and the Old Testament, it is clear that they were not necessarily poor peasants who were oppressed, so that they were in some sense justified in taking the land. Some of the evidence in the papyri parallels Jesus’ parable remarkably closely. A landowner leases his land to a farmer (the same Greek word both in the New Testament and the papyri). The landowner sends servants to collect the profits. The farmer assaults them and runs them out of the village (Evans, pp. 245-47). So instead of being dispossessed peasants, the farmers in the parable could be the powerful who were greedy for profit and the acquisition of more land. Thus, the farmers and their actions are consistent with the ruling priests in Jerusalem, according to Jesus’ assessment of them, as the end of the parable indicates.

Craig A. Evans, “Are the Wicked Tenant Farmers ‘Peasants’?” pp. 231-50.

read the rest of this article here .

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