Arheologi au dezgropat ruinele palatului regelui David in Israel

O echipă de arheologi din Israel crede că a descoperit ruinele palatului ce a aparţinut personajului biblic, regele David.

Arheologii de la Universitatea Ebraică de la Ierusalim şi Autoritatea pentru Antichităţi susţin că au descoperit un complex fortificat aflat pe o întindere mare dintr-un sit arheologic localizat la vest de Ierusalim, numit Khirbet Qeiyafa

„Khirbet Qeiyafa este cel mai bun exemplu de până acum care prezintă un oraş fortificat din timpul regelui David”, a declarat arheologul Yossi Garfinkel, sugerând că este posibil ca David însuşi să fi folosit teritoriul.

Garfinkel susţine că echipa sa a descoperit obiecte de cult obişnuite de iudei şi că nu au găsit nicio rămăşiţă a vreunui porc, animal a cărui carne nu este consumată de evrei. Astfel de indicii, spune Garfinkel sunt „dovezi neechivoce” care demonstrează că david şi descendenţii săi au condus acest loc.

Totuşi, criticii spun că teritoriul ar fi putut să aparţină altor regate din zonă, iar majoritatea specialiştilor susţin că până acum nu s-au descoperit dovezi definitive care demonstreze existenţa regelui David. Potrivit acestora, arheologia biblică este discutabilă, iar israelienii folosesc adesea astfel de descoperiri aflate pe teritorii pe care le revendică palestinienii, pentru a face legătură cu trecutul lor istoric.

De exemplu, în ciuda dovezilor arheologice, palestinienii neagă faptul că templul iudaic biblic domina dealul pe care se află Moscheea Al-Aqsa. În general, cercetătorii sunt împărţiţi în cei care cred şi cei care nu cred că istorisirile biblice sunt validate de rămăşiţele fizice.

Actualele acţiuni de excavare nu sunt primele care i-au determinat pe specialişti să declare că au găsit palatul regelui David. În 2005, arheologul israelian Eilat Mazar a declarat că a găsit rămăşiţele palatului în Ierusalim şi că acestea datează din secolul X î.e.n., perioada în care David a fost la putere. Şi teoria lui Mazar a trezit scepticism în rândul comunităţii ştiinţifice, iar printre critici s-a numărat şi Garfinkel. (Jos- model dupa templul lui David de la NOVA)

Folosind datarea cu carbon, arheologii au concluzionat că rămăşiţele de la situl arheologic nou descoperit datează tot din secolul X î.e.n. De asemenea, specialiştii au găsit şi o cameră de depozitare cu o lungime de 15 metri, ceea ce sugerează că aici exista un sistem regal de colectare a taxelor.

Garfinkel consideră că regele David a trăit permanent într-un loc încă nedescoperit din Ierusalim, vizitând Khirbet Qeiyafa sau alte palate doar ocazional, pentru perioade scurte de timp. El a mai adăugat că plasarea sitului pe un deal indică faptul că liderul a ales un loc sigur, la înălţime, în timpul unei ere violente, marcată de conflicte dese.

„În timpul lui David a fost pentru prima dată când o mare parte din zonă a fost unită sub un singur monarh. Nu a fost o eră liniştită”, a explicat Garfinkel.

Arheologul Israel Finkelstein, de la Universitatea Tel Aviv, este de acord cu Garfinkel, că Khirbet Qeiyafa este un sit „elaborat” şi „bine fortificat” ce datează din secolul X î.e.n., dar el consideră şi să situl ar fi putut fi construit de palestinieni, canaaniţi sau alţi oameni. El a mai adăugat că fără un monument închinat celui care a ridicat construcţia, nu se poate spune cui i-a aparţinut teritoriul.

sursa http://www.descopera.ro photo #1 www.cbc.ca and photo #2 www.pbs.org

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Archaeologists claim to have found King David’s palace in Israel

Via the Christian Post Photo credit – photo #1 www.cbc.ca and photo #2 www.pbs.org

Archaeologists in Israel have claimed they have found the ruins of a palace that belonged to the biblical King David at a site west of Jerusalem, but some experts say there is lack of evidence to prove the claim. A team of archaeologists from Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Israel’s Antiquities Authority got together for a seven-year dig at Khirbet Qeiyafa, a site west of Jerusalem. And at the completion of the dig, they say they have discovered a large fortified complex that was the first palace of King David in what was once a Judean city of Sha’arayim, according to The Associated Press.

The Old Testament book 1 Samuel 17:52 records that after David killed Goliath, the Philistines ran away and were slain on the „road to Sha’arayim. „Khirbet Qeiyafa is the best example exposed to date of a fortified city from the time of King David,” say the two leaders of the team, Yossi Garfinkel from Hebrew University and Saar Ganor of the Antiquities Authority.

They say there is „unequivocal evidence” in the form of cultic objects that were typically used by King David’s subjects, the Judeans. Besides, they found no trace of pig remains – as pork is forbidden under Jewish laws.

They say they have discovered another structure at the site which was a storeroom. „The southern part of a large palace that extended across an area of about 1,000 square meters was revealed at the top of the city,” they say. „The wall enclosing the palace is about 30 meters long and an impressive entrance is fixed it through which one descended to the southern gate of the city, opposite the Valley of Elah. Around the palace’s perimeter were rooms in which various installations were found – evidence of a metal industry, special pottery vessels and fragments of alabaster vessels that were imported from Egypt.”

NOVA’s filmmakers envisioned what King David’s palace complex might have looked like- from www.pbs.org

„This is the only site in which organic material was found – including olive seeds – that can be carbon-14 dated,” The Times of Israel quotes Yoli Schwartz, a spokeswoman of the Antiquities Authority, as saying. „The palace is located in the center of the site and controls all of the houses lower than it in the city. From here one has an excellent vantage looking out into the distance, from as far as the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Hebron Mountains and Jerusalem in the east. This is an ideal location from which to send messages by means of fire signals.”

While other experts agree the finding is significant, they say it’s possible it belonged to other kingdoms of the area. Prof. Aren Meir of Bar Ilan University told Haaretz that the archaeologists should not over-rely on the Bible, as question-marks hang over the existence of King David’s monarchy along with Solomon.

However, Garfinkel and Ganor maintain, „The palace that is now being revealed and the fortified city that was uncovered in recent years are another tier in understanding the beginning of the Kingdom of Judah.”
Read more at http://www.christianpost.com

3,000-year-old text from King David’s time is found in the holy city (oldest inscription ever found in area)

Jar fragment bearing an inscription in a Canaanite language that was unearthed near Jerusalem’s Temple Mount by Hebrew University archaeologist Eilat Mazar. (photo credit: Eilat Mazar/Noga Cohen-Aloro) Photo and Story From The Times of Israel:

3,000-year-old text from King David’s time, in an unknown language on the top of a jug, is earliest alphabetical writing ever found in holy city. Oldest inscription found in J’lem, but no one can read it.

An ancient inscription dating back to the time of King David, recently discovered in Jerusalem, has researchers scratching their heads.

The 3,000-year-old text comes from the top of what remains of a large earthenware jug and is the earliest alphabetical written text ever uncovered in the city, according to a statement from Hebrew University, whose researchers found the artifact.

Dated to the 10th century BCE, the artifact predates by 250 years the earliest known Hebrew inscription from Jerusalem, from the period of King Hezekiah at the end of the 8th century BCE.

The new inscription was found around the top of a jug, but only the first letter and last few now remain. Although the characters are legible, it is in an unknown Canaanite language.

The pottery was found in December 2012 but details of the discovery were only published on Wednesday after initial examinations of the find were completed.

Archaeologist Eilat Mazar, who is leading the dig that found the inscribed fragment, speculated that the text names the owner of the jug, its destination, or perhaps its contents.

Mazar reckoned that the text comes from the Jebusite people who lived in the area at the time, or some other Canaanite tribe that called Jerusalem home at the time of King David, around 1000 BCE. The date makes the discovery the oldest known text to be found in Jerusalem after the Israelite arrival in the city.

Reading from left to right, the text contains a combination of letters approximately 2.5 cm tall, which translate to m, q, p, h, n, (possibly) l, and n. Since this combination of letters has no meaning in known west-Semitic languages, researchers are boggled as to what the letters say.

According to Mazar, the inscription, in the Canaanite language, is the only one of its kind discovered in Jerusalem and an important addition to the city’s history.

Researchers from the Hebrew University found the artifact at a dig along the southern wall of the Temple Mount enclosure.

The southern wall meets the Western Wall, a remnant of the ancient wall that surrounded the Temple courtyard, at a corner that has been extensively explored by researchers and developed as an archaeological park.

The jug, along with pieces from six other jugs typical to the period, was found beneath the floor of the remains of a large structure where they were apparently placed in ancient times to shore up the floor.

Coming July 12 – Dead Sea Scrolls on display at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary’s exhibition, „Dead Sea Scrolls & the Bible: Ancient Artifacts, Timeless Treasures” in Forth Worth, Texas

via The ChristianPost

Visitors at the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary’s exhibition, „Dead Sea Scrolls & the Bible: Ancient Artifacts, Timeless Treasures” in Forth Worth, Texas, will be able to view the largest Dead Scroll fragments to ever be placed on public display starting July 12.

„The chance to view portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls usually requires an overseas trip to a Near East nation, such as Israel or Jordan,” said Bruce McCoy, the exhibition director.

The elaborate display will include the Genesis 37-38 fragment, which is owned by the Kando family of Bethlehem and is considered to be the largest Dead Sea Scroll segment held by a private collector. Five other major fragments will also be on display, including Genesis 33, 1 Kings 13:22-22, Isaiah 28:23-29, Amos 7:17- 8:1 and Joel 3:9-10.

These fragments account for only the latest additions to the impressive ancient artifact display – passages from Nehemiah, Ezekiel, and Jonah are all also featured, and with the help of the Green Collection and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Southwestern’s total display has reached 21.

In addition, other rare and interesting artifacts that will be present at the MacGorman Performing Arts Center will include the Isaiah scroll, the Habakkuk Commentary, the Manual of Discipline, and the full Copper Scroll, which were all found at the archaeological site in Qumran where the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered.

read the entire story here at The ChristianPost

Dead Sea Scrolls Found

A.D. 1947

Probably originally hidden during the Roman sack of Jerusalem around 70 A.D., the Dead Sea Scrolls are one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the 20th century.

Probably originally hidden during the Roman sack of Jerusalem around 70 A.D., the Dead Sea Scrolls are one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the 20th century.
Photograph copyright John C. Trever/The Dead Sea Scroll Foundation/Corbis

The Dead Sea scrolls are one of the greatest discoveries in archaeological history. The ancient texts first came to light in 1947, when a young goat herder stumbled upon some manuscripts hidden in a cave at Khirbat Qumrān—about a dozen miles (19 kilometers) from the ancient West Bank city of Jericho.

The leatherbound papyrus manuscripts include hundreds of distinct works. The predominantly Hebrew writings are a wellspring of information about the Holy Land from the third century B.C. to the second century A.D., including the birth and growth of Christianity and the new faith’s religious and social relationships to Judaism. As the scrolls’ value became known, local Bedouin nomads and archaeologists raced to find more. To date the area has yielded scrolls from 11 different caves.

The finds include a nearly complete Hebrew Old Testament Bible, which has allowed scholars to date the existence of that text to no later than A.D. 70. In addition, the Copper Scroll was a sort of archaeological treasure map guiding scholars to dozens of other hidden texts. And the Temple Scroll contained detailed construction plans for the Temple of Jerusalem.

Many scholars believe that the documents belonged to a Hebrew religious sect that lived in the area during the first century A.D. The scrolls’ guardians may have hidden them from the Romans during the First Jewish Revolt (A.D. 66 to 70).

Since their discovery the scrolls have often been a source of controversy among scholars. Texts of the more complete documents were published soon after their discovery but most of the scrolls have deteriorated into thousands of tiny fragments. Access to these texts was for many years tightly controlled by a small group of scholars working under the Jordan Department of Antiquities and later, after Israel took over the area in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, the Israel Antiquities Authority. In 1991 the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, allowed scholars unlimited access to its complete collection of scroll photographs—finally opening the priceless texts to study by the larger community of eager scholars.

Archaeologists uncover a fortified city in Judah from the time of King David

Read also – Archaeologists Uncover Proof of Pre-Jesus Bethlehem at the Christian Post

Source www.biblicalarchaeology.org and Hebrew University – http://www.huji.ac.il

The exciting finds just keep coming at Khirbet Qeiyafa. This unique, fortified Judahite city on the border with Philistia had a short-lived existence between 1020 and 980 B.C.E., according to carbon-dated remains excavated at the site, that places it at the dawn of the Israelite Monarchy, the time of King Saul and King David. In 2008, excavation director Yosef Garfinkel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem revealed an ostracon with five lines of early script that had been discovered at Khirbet Qeiyafa. Among the earliest examples of alphabetic writing found in Israel, the enigmatic Qeiyafa Ostracon has been the focus of several articles in Biblical Archaeology Review, including two features in the May/June 2012 issue.

 Now even more fascinating finds from Khirbet Qeiyafa are shedding light on the crucial historical period of King David. Announced today at a press conference in Jerusalem, Garfinkel shared with the public for the first time several cultic items that were recently excavated from three “shrine rooms” at the site, including two portable shrine models, two basalt altars, two pottery libation vessels and five standing stones. According to Garfinkel and his codirector, Saar Ganor of the Israel Antiquities Authority, these finds offer the first clear archaeological evidence of cultic activity in Judah during the time of King David. The shrine models also show the existence of sophisticated royal architecture styles during that period and may shed light on design elements of Solomon’s Temple as described in the Bible.

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Department of Media Relations

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Hebrew University archaeologist finds the first evidence of a cult in Judah at the time of King David, with implications for Solomon’s Temple

Jerusalem, May 8, 2012—Prof. Yosef Garfinkel, the Yigal Yadin Professor of Archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, announced today the discovery of objects that for the first time shed light on how a cult was organized in Judah at the time of King David. During recent archaeological excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa, a fortified city in Judah adjacent to the Valley of Elah, Garfinkel and colleagues uncovered rich assemblages of pottery, stone and metal tools, and many art and cult objects. These include three large rooms that served as cultic shrines, which in their architecture and finds correspond to the biblical description of a cult at the time of King David.

This discovery is extraordinary as it is the first time that shrines from the time of early biblical kings were uncovered. Because these shrines pre-date the construction of Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem by 30 to 40 years, they provide the first physical evidence of a cult in the time of King David, with significant implications for the fields of archaeology, history, biblical and religion studies.

Located approximately 30 km. southwest of Jerusalem in the valley of Elah, Khirbet Qeiyafa was a border city of the Kingdom of Judah opposite the Philistine city of Gath. The city, which was dated by 10 radiometric measurements (14C) done at Oxford University on burned olive pits, existed for a short period of time between ca. 1020 to 980 BCE, and was violently destroyed.

The biblical tradition presents the people of Israel as conducting a cult different from all other nations of the ancient Near East by being monotheistic and an-iconic (banning human or animal figures). However, it is not clear when these practices were formulated, if indeed during the time of the monarchy (10-6th centuries BC), or only later, in the Persian or Hellenistic eras.

The absence of cultic images of humans or animals in the three shrines provides evidence that the inhabitants of the place practiced a different cult than that of the Canaanites or the Philistines, observing a ban on graven images.

The findings at Khirbet Qeiyafa also indicate that an elaborate architectural style had developed as early as the time of King David. Such construction is typical of royal activities, thus indicating that state formation, the establishment of an elite, social level and urbanism in the region existed in the days of the early kings of Israel. These finds strengthen the historicity of the biblical tradition and its architectural description of the Palace and Temple of Solomon.

According to Prof. Garfinkel, “This is the first time that archaeologists uncovered a fortified city in Judah from the time of King David. Even in Jerusalem we do not have a clear fortified city from his period. Thus, various suggestions that completely deny the biblical tradition regarding King David and argue that he was a mythological figure, or just a leader of a small tribe, are now shown to be wrong.” Garfinkel continued, “Over the years, thousands of animal bones were found, including sheep, goats and cattle, but no pigs. Now we uncovered three cultic rooms, with various cultic paraphernalia, but not even one human or animal figurine was found. This suggests that the population of Khirbet Qeiyafa observed two biblical bans—on pork and on graven images—and thus practiced a different cult than that of the Canaanites or the Philistines.”

Description of the findings and their significance

The three shrines are part of larger building complexes. In this respect they are different from Canaanite or Philistine cults, which were practiced in temples—separate buildings dedicated only to rituals. The biblical tradition described this phenomenon in the time of King David: “He brought the ark of God from a private house in Kyriat Yearim and put it in Jerusalem in a private house” (2 Samuel 6).

The cult objects include five standing stones (Massebot), two basalt altars, two pottery libation vessels and two portable shrines. No human or animal figurines were found, suggesting the people of Khirbet Qeiyafa observed the biblical ban on graven images.

Two portable shrines (or “shrine models”) were found, one made of pottery (ca. 20 cm high) and the other of stone (35 cm high). These are boxes in the shape of temples, and could be closed by doors.

The clay shrine is decorated with an elaborate façade, including two guardian lions, two pillars, a main door, beams of the roof, folded textile and three birds standing on the roof. Two of these elements are described in Solomon’s Temple: the two pillars (Yachin and Boaz) and the textile (Parochet).

The stone shrine is made of soft limestone and painted red. Its façade is decorated by two elements. The first are seven groups of roof-beams, three planks in each. This architectural element, the “triglyph,” is known in Greek classical temples, like the Parthenon in Athens. Its appearance at Khirbet Qeiyafa is the earliest known example carved in stone, a landmark in world architecture.

The second decorative element is the recessed door. This type of doors or windows is known in the architecture of temples, palaces and royal graves in the ancient Near East. This was a typical symbol of divinity and royalty at the time.

The stone model helps us to understand obscure technical terms in the description of Solomon’s palace as described in 1 Kings 7, 1-6. The text uses the term “Slaot,” which were mistakenly understood as pillars and can now be understood as triglyphs. The text also uses the term “Sequfim”, which was usually understood as nine windows in the palace, and can now be understood as “triple recessed doorway.”

Similar triglyphs and recessed doors can be found in the description of Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 6, Verses 5, 31-33, and in the description of a temple by the prophet Ezekiel (41:6). These biblical texts are replete with obscure technical terms that have lost their original meaning over the millennia. Now, with the help of the stone model uncovered at Khirbet Qeiyafa, the biblical text is clarified. For the first time in history we have actual objects from the time of David, which can be related to monuments described in the Bible.
Source – http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-artifacts/artifacts-and-the-bible/breaking-news—evidence-of-cultic-activity-in-judah-discovered-at-khirbet-qeiyafa/

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