5 Gospel for Asia Women Missionaries beaten while while sharing the love of Christ in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh

And what is our excuse for not sharing the Gospel? May God protect His missionaries and all those whose feet bring the good news of the Gospel to unbelievers- ROMANS 10:15 „how are they to hear vwithout someone preaching? 15 And how are they to preach unless they are sent? As it is written, w“How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the good news!”

via Mission News Network Photo via http://www.christiantoday.com/

In the late morning, Bansari, Jaladhi, Kuyil, Sunita, and Viveka visited a marketplace about four miles from the GFA administrative office where they serve.

While the women were offering literature to shopkeepers and bystanders, a young man asked Jaladhi what they were doing. When Jaladhi said they were sharing about Christ’s love, the young man slapped her in the face.

As Sunita, Viveka, and Bansari rushed to Jaladhi, the man attacked them also, hitting their necks, faces, ears, and heads. Meanwhile, Kuyil, who stood in another part of the marketplace, escaped five men who had surrounded her.

Passersby watched the situation but did nothing to stop the attack.

Due to blows, the missionaries suffered from pain and swelling. They immediately reported the incident to their leaders after returning to the office. They say they rejoice that God’s name will be honored through their suffering.

“We rejoice in the Lord, though beaten up,” Bansari said. “May the Lord change their hearts.”

Mary Slessor – Missionary to 1800’s Nigeria

SEE FILM BELOW + see links to other biographical films at bottom of post.

Mary-slessor-and-adopted-children

Mary Slessor, inspired by the life of Dr. David Livingstone set out for West Africa at the age of 28. Undaunted  by two illnesses, one of them being malaria, which forced her to return to Scotland for a short period, by the witchcraft, and the one case of ritual slaughter practiced by the natives, she learned the native language, lived with and like the natives and moved further and further into unbroken territory- Efik and Okoyong of Calabar, in present day Nigeria. Along the way she established missions and adopted every baby she found due to the ritual killing of twins that is still practiced in some Nigerian villages today. (See here- 40 Abuja Towns Kill Twins! (stharry.wordpress.com) ) Besides being an evangelist, Mary Slessor also concentrated on settling disputes, encouraging trade, establishing social changes and introducing Western education. In 1892 she was made vice-consul in Okoyong, presiding over the native court and in 1905 was named vice-president of Ikot Obong native court. Slessor suffered failing health in her later years but remained in Africa where she died in 1915.

If you think all Victorian women were ladies in lavender crinolines swooning at the sight of a mouse, think again. There were a surprising number who went off into the unknown alone, and the bravest was a Scottish missionary called Mary Slessor. She became a legend in Scotland and in Nigeria, where she is still celebrated today. When she first went to Africa in 1876 the Scottish church had bee established on the Nigerian coast for many years but the interior was largely unexplored. This fascinating two-part documentary explores her life and works, from her early childhood in Aberdeen to the work she carried out improving trading and the living standards of women in Nigeria.

Part 1

Part 2

Mary Slessor was born on December 2, 1848 in Gilcomston, close to Aberdeen, Scotland. She was the second of seven children of Robert and Mary Slessor. Her father, originally from Buchan, was a shoemaker by trade. In 1859 the family moved to Dundee in search of work. Robert Slessor was an alcoholic, and unable to keep up shoemaking, took a job as a labourer in a mill. Her mother, a skilled weaver, also went to work in the mills. At the age of eleven, Mary began work as a „half timer” in the Baxter Brothers’ Mill. She spent half of her day at a school provided by the mill owners, and the other half working for the company. The Slessors lived in the slums of Dundee. Before long, Mary’s father died of pneumonia, and both her brothers died, leaving behind only Mary, her mother, and two sisters. By age fourteen, Mary had become a skilled jute worker, working from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. with just an hour for breakfast and lunch.

Mary’s mother was a devout Presbyterians who read each issue of the Missionary Record, a monthly magazine published by The United Presbyterian Church (later United Free Church of Scotland) to inform members of missionary activities and needs. Mary developed an interest in religion and, when a mission was instituted in Quarry Pend (close by the Wishart Church), Mary volunteered to become a teacher. Mary was 27 when she heard news that David Livingstone, the famous missionary and explorer, had died. She wanted to follow in his footsteps.

Missionary

Eventually, Mary applied to the Foreign Mission Board of the United Presbyterian Church. After a of training in Edinburgh, Mary set sail in the S.S. Ethiopia on 5 August 1876, and arrived at her destination in West Africa just over a month later. She was 28 years of age, red haired with bright blue eyes. Mary was sent to the Calabar region, warned that witchcraft and superstition were prevalent. The ritual sacrifice of children, and twins in particular, was customary among the people she would be ministering to, but Mary was undaunted. She worked first in the missions in Old Town and Creek Town. She lived in the missionary compound for 3 years. She wanted to go deeper into Calabar, malaria forced her to go home to Scotland and recover. Mary left Calabar for Dundee in 1879. She was in Scotland for 16 months before heading back to Africa.

On her return, she did not go back to the compound, but 3 miles further into Calabar, to Old Town. As she had to leave a large portion of her salary at home for the support of her mother and sisters, she had to economise and took to subsisting on the native food.

Issues that Mary confronted as a young missionary included widespread human sacrifice at the death of a village elder, who, it was believed, required servants and retainers to accompany him in the next world, and the lack of education or any status for women. The birth of twins was considered an evil curse. The belief was that the father of one of the infants was an evil spirit, and that the mother had been guilty of a great sin; and as they were allowed to live. Twin babies were often abandoned in the bush. In such circumstances as soon as twins missioners sought to obtain possession of them, and gave them the security and care of the Mission House. Some of the Mission compounds were alive with babies.Mary adopted every child that she found abandoned. She once saved a pair of twins, a boy and a girl, but the boy did not survive. Mary was devastated, but took the girl as her daughter and called her Janie.

After only three more years, she went back to Scotland on yet another furlough because she was extremely sick. But she wasn’t alone this time, she had Janie with her. She was home for over 3 years looking after her mother and sister, who had also fallen ill. While she was home, Mary spoke at churches all over and shared stories from Africa.

According to Livingstone, when two deputies went out to inspect the Mission in 1881-82, they were much impressed. They stated, “…[S]he enjoys the unreserved friendship and confidence of the people, and has much influence over them.” This they attributed partly to the singular ease with which she spoke the language.

Mary again returned to Africa, with more determination then ever. She saved hundreds of twins out of the fierce jungle, where they had been left either to starve to death or get eaten by wild animals. She prevented dozens, possibly even hundreds of wars, helped heal the sick and stopped the practice of determining guilt by making the suspects drink poison. She went to other tribes, spreading the word of Jesus Christ wherever and whenever she could. While in Africa, she received news that her mother and sister had died. She was overcome with loneliness. She wrote,”There is no one to write and tell my stories and nonsense to.” She had also found a sense of writing, ”Heaven is now nearer to me than Britain,and no one will worry about me if I go up country.”

In August 1888, she went traveled north to Okoyong, an area where missionaries were previously killed, but Mary was sure that her teachings, and the fact that she was a woman, would be less threatening to unreached tribes than male missionaries had been. For 15 years, she stayed with the Okoyong. She was a peacemaker and a nurse. She died when she was 66.

Among the Efik

Unlike other missionaries, Mary lived as part of the tribe, learned to speak Efik, the native language, and made close personal friendships wherever she went. She adopted abandoned twins and worked tirelessly to protect children and raise the status of women. Mary was known for her pragmatism and humour; this earned her the respect and trust of the people she wanted to serve.

Mary Slessor went to live among the Efik and the Okoyong which lived near the Efiks who live in Calabar, in present day Nigeria. There she successfully fought against the killing of twins at infancy. Mary Slessor was a driving force behind the establishment of the Hope Waddell Training Institute in Calabar, which provided practical vocational training to Africans.

Death

In 1888 she went alone to work among the Okoyong. For the rest of her life Slessor lived a simple life in a traditional house with Africans, concentrating on pioneering. Her insistence on lone stations often led her into conflict with the authorities and gained her a reputation as somewhat eccentric, but she was heralded in Britain as the ‘white queen of Okoyong’. She was not primarily an evangelist but concentrated on settling disputes, encouraging trade, establishing social changes and introducing Western education. Slessor frequently campaigned against injustices against women, took in outcasts and adopted unwanted children. In 1892 she was made vice-consul in Okoyong, presiding over the native court and in 1905 was named vice-president of Ikot Obong native court. In 1913 she was awarded the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Slessor suffered failing health in her later years but remained in Africa where she died in 1915.

Mary Slessor died in 1915 at her remote station near Use Ikot Oku. Her body was transported down the Cross River to Duke Town for the colonial equivalent of a state funeral. Attendees at her funeral included the Provincial Commissioner along with other senior British Officials in full uniform. Her Coffin was wrapped in the Union Jack. Flags at government buildings were flown at half mast and the Governor General of Nigeria, Sir Fredrick Lugard telegraphed his ‘deepest regret’ from Lagos and published a warm tribute in the Government Gazette. WIKIPEDIA link – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Slessor

Hudson Taylor – Missionary to China for 51 years, in the 1800’s and Friend to Spurgeon

1st photo from http://www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives

  1. Information and photos in this post (unless otherwise noted) are from Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson_Taylor
  2. You can read works by James Hudson Taylor at Project Gutenberg – http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/t#a25841
  3. You can read Charles Spurgeon’s recounting of his first meeting with Hudson Taylor here – http://www.spurgeon.org/s_and_t/totkc.htm
  4. Hudson Taylor MOVIE in CHINESE here – http://youtu.be/NUuzuP3hAmU
  5. Hudson Taylor MOVIE in SPANISH here – http://youtu.be/WopRAnD0z3o
  6. See a MOVIE on the life of Hudson Taylor at the bottom of this post

Some Hudson Taylor quotes:

  • All God’s giants have been weak men, who did great things for God because they reckoned on His being with them.
  • I have found that there are three stages in every great work of God: first, it is impossible, then it is difficult, then it is done.
  • It is not lost time to wait upon God!
  • A little thing is a little thing, but faithfulness in little things is a great thing.
  • „All at once came the thought – If you are simply obeying the LORD, all the responsibility will rest on Him, not on you! What a relief!! Well, I cried to God – You shall be responsible for them, and for me too!”
  • If this is a real work for God it is a real conflict with Satan.
  • At home you can never know what it is to be alone – absolutely alone, amidst thousands, as you can in a Chinese city, without one friend, one companion, everyone looking on you with curiosity, with contempt, with suspicion or with dislike. Thus to learn what it is to be despised and rejected of men – of those you wish to benefit, your motives not understood . . . and then to have the love of Jesus applied to your heart by the Holy Spirit . . . this is worth coming for.
  • Devotion to GOD is still a voluntary thing; hence the differences of attainment among Christians.”
  • Nearness to GOD calls for tenderness of conscience, thoughtfulness in service, and implicit obedience.
  • Satan may build a hedge about us and fence us in and hinder our movements, but he cannot roof us in and prevent our looking up.
  • Some are jealous of being successors of the Apostles. I would rather be a successor of the Samaritan woman, who, while the Apostles went for meat and forgot souls, forgot her water pot in her zeal to spread the good tidings.
  • There are three great truths, 1st, That there is a God; 2nd, That He has spoken to us in the Bible; 3rd, That He means what He says. Oh, the joy of trusting Him!
  • When the heart submits, then Jesus reigns When Jesus reigns, there is rest.

The life of James Hudson Taylor

James Hudson Taylor (Chinese: 戴德生) (21 May 1832 – 3 June 1905), was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, and founder of the China Inland Mission (CIM) (now OMF International). Taylor spent 51 years in China. The society that he began was responsible for bringing over 800 missionaries to the country who began 125 schools and directly resulted in 18,000 Christian conversions, as well as the establishment of more than 300 stations of work with more than 500 local helpers in all eighteen provinces.

Taylor was known for his sensitivity to Chinese culture and zeal for evangelism. He adopted wearing native Chinese clothing even though this was rare among missionaries of that time. Under his leadership, the CIM was singularly non-denominational in practice and accepted members from all Protestant groups, including individuals from the working class and single women as well as multinational recruits. Primarily because of the CIM’s campaign against the Opium trade, Taylor has been referred to as one of the most significant Europeans to visit China in the 19th Century. Historian Ruth Tucker summarises the theme of his life:

No other missionary in the nineteen centuries since the Apostle Paul has had a wider vision and has carried out a more systematised plan of evangelising a broad geographical area than Hudson Taylor.

Taylor was able to preach in several varieties of Chinese, including Mandarin, Chaozhou, and the Wu dialects of Shanghai andNingbo. The last of these he knew well enough to help prepare a colloquial edition of the New Testament written in it.

His youth

Taylor was born in Barnsley, Yorkshire, England, on 21 May 1832 the son of a chemist (pharmacist) and Methodist lay preacher James Taylor and his wife, Amelia (Hudson), but as a young man he moved away from the Christian beliefs of his parents. At seventeen, after reading an evangelistic tract pamphlet entitled „Poor Richard”, he professed faith in Christ, and in December 1849, he committed himself to going to China as a missionary.[citation needed] At this time he came into contact with Dr Edward Cronin of Kensington—one of the members of the first missionary party of thePlymouth Brethren to Baghdad. It is believed that Taylor learned his faith mission principles from his contact with the Brethren.

Taylor was able to borrow a copy of China: Its State and Prospects by Walter Henry Medhurst, which he quickly read. About this time, he began studying the languages of Mandarin, Greek, Hebrew, and Latin.

In 1851, he moved to a poor neighbourhood in Kingston upon Hull to be a medical assistant with Dr. Robert Hardey, and began preparing himself for a life of faith and service, devoting himself to the poor and exercising faith that God would provide for his needs. He practised distributing gospel tracts and open-air preaching among the poor. He was baptised by Andrew John Jukes of the Plymouth Brethren in the Hull Brethren Assembly in 1852, and convinced his sister Amelia to also take adult baptism.

In 1852 he began studying medicine at the Royal London Hospital in Whitechapel, London, as preparation for working in China. The great interest awakened in England about China through the civil war, which was then erroneously supposed to be a mass movement toward Christianity, together with the glowing but exaggerated reports made by Karl Gützlaff concerning China’s accessibility, led to the founding of the Chinese Evangelisation Society, to the service of which Hudson Taylor offered himself as their first missionary.

His Work in China

Taylor left England on 19 September 1853 before completing his medical studies, arriving in Shanghai, China, on 1 March 1854. The nearly disastrous voyage aboard the clipper Dumfries through an Easterly passage near Buru Island lasted about five months. In China, he was immediately faced with civil war, throwing his first year there into turmoil.

Taylor made 18 preaching tours in the vicinity of Shanghai starting in 1855, and was often poorly received by the people, even though he brought with him medical supplies and skills. He made a decision to adopt the native Chinese clothes and queue (pigtail) with shaven forehead, however, and was then able to gain an audience without creating a disturbance. Previous to this, Taylor realised that wherever he went he was being referred to as a „black devil” because of the overcoat he wore. He distributed thousands of Chinese Gospel tracts and portions of Scripture in and around Shanghai.

Scottish evangelist, William Chalmers Burns, of the English Presbyterian Mission began work in Shantou, and for a period Taylor joined him there. After leaving he later found that all of his medical supplies, being stored in Shanghai, had been destroyed by a fire. Then in October 1856, while travelling across China he was robbed of nearly everything he owned.

Relocated in Ningbo by 1857, Taylor received a letter from a supportive George Müller which led to Taylor and his co-worker John Jones deciding to resign from the problematic mission board which had sent them, and instead work independently in what came to be called the „Ningpo Mission”. Four Chinese men joined them in their work: Ni Yongfa, Feng Ninggui, Wang Laijun, and Qiu Guogui.

In 1858, Taylor married Maria Jane Dyer, the orphaned daughter of the Rev. Samuel Dyer of the London Missionary Society, who had been a pioneer missionary to the Chinese in Penang, Malaysia. Hudson met Maria in Ningbo where she lived and worked at a school for girls which was run by one of the first female missionaries to the Chinese, Mary Ann Aldersey.

Because of health problems, in 1860 Taylor decided to return to England for a furlough with his family. The Taylors sailed back to England aboard the tea clipper Jubilee along with their daughter, Grace and a young man, Wang Laijun, from the Bridge Street church in Ningbo, who would help with the Bible translation work that would continue in England.

He travelled extensively around the British Isles speaking at churches and promoting the needs of China. At home in the East End of London he also ministered at Newgate Prison. During this time he became friends with Charles Haddon Spurgeon, who pastored theMetropolitan Tabernacle and became a lifelong supporter of Taylor.

On 25 June 1865, at Brighton, Taylor definitely dedicated himself to God for the founding of a new society to undertake the evangelisation of the „unreached” inland provinces of China. He founded the China Inland Mission together with William Thomas Berger shortly thereafter. In less than one year, they had accepted 21 missionaries and raised over £2,000 (about £130,000 in 2007 terms).

PHOTO below: On 26 May 1866, after more than five years of working in England, Taylor and family set sail for China with their new missions team „the Lammermuir Party” aboard the tea clipper Lammermuir. A four-month voyage was considered speedy at the time. While in the South China Sea and also the Pacific Ocean the ship was nearly wrecked but survived two typhoons. They arrived safely in Shanghai on 30 September 1866. The Lammermuir Party included 16 missionaries and the Taylors’ four children.

Return to China

The arrival of the largest party of missionaries ever sent to China—as well as their intent to be dressed in native clothing—gave the foreign settlement in Shanghai much to talk about and some criticism began for the young China Inland Mission. The party donned Chinese clothing, notwithstanding—even the women missionaries—which was deemed semi-scandalous at the time. When other missionaries sought to preserve their British ways, Taylor was convinced that the Gospel would only take root on Chinese soil if missionaries were willing to affirm the culture of the people they were seeking to reach. He argued, from the example of the Apostle Paul, “Let us in everything not sinful become like the Chinese, that by all means we may save some.”

In 1869 Hudson was influenced by a passage on personal holiness from a book called „Christ Is All” by Henry Law that was sent to him by a fellow missionary, John McCarthy. „The Lord Jesus received is holiness begun; the Lord Jesus cherished is holiness advancing; the Lord Jesus counted upon as never absent would be holiness complete.” This new understanding of continually abiding in Christ endured for the rest of his life. At the time, he was quoted by fellow missionary Charles Henry Judd as saying: ”Oh, Mr. Judd, God has made me a new man!”. Photo below left – Hudson Taylor 1893

 His wife Maria died of cholera in 1870, weeks after she gave birth to a son who survived for only 2 weeks. Her death shook Taylor deeply, and in 1871, his own health began deteriorating further, leading to his return to England later that year to recuperate. In 1871 Taylor was married to Jane Elizabeth Faulding who had been a fellow missionary since 1866. During the winter of 1874 and 1875 Taylor was practically paralysed from a fall he had taken on a river boat while in China. In this state of crippling physical hindrance, Taylor confidently published an appeal for 18 new workers to join the work. When he did recover his strength, Jennie remained with the children, (including a new son and daughter, Ernest and Amy, as well as the orphaned daughter of fellow missionary George Duncan) and in 1876 Hudson Taylor returned to China and the 18 requested missionaries followed him.

Taylor returned to England in 1883 to recruit more missionaries speaking of China’s needs, and returned to China, working now with a total of 225 missionaries and 59 churches. In 1887 their numbers increased by another 102 with The Hundred missionaries, and in 1888, Taylor brought 14 missionaries from the United States. In the US he travelled and spoke at many places, including the Niagara Bible Conference where he befriended Cyrus Scofield and later Taylor filled the pulpit of Dwight Lyman Moody as a guest in Chicago. Moody and Scofield thereafter actively supported the work of the China Inland Mission of North America.

Due to health issues, Taylor remained in Switzerland, semi-retired with his wife. In 1900, Dixon Edward Hoste was appointed the Acting General Director of the CIM, and in 1902, Taylor formally resigned. His wife, Jennie, died of cancer in 1904 in Les Chevalleyres, Switzerland, and in 1905, Taylor returned to China for the eleventh and final time. There he visited Yangzhou and Zhenjiang and other cities, before dying suddenly while reading at home in Changsha. He was buried next to his first wife, Maria in Zhenjiang near the Yangtze River.

There is much more information on the life of Hudson Taylor, including a very detailed outline of chronological event at Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson_Taylor Photo below from http://wheaton.edu of China Inland Mission with Hudson Taylor in the middle (with the long beard)

The film – Hudson Taylor’s life

Hudson Taylor pioneered missions to the interior of mainland China. From his arrival in Shanghai through the death of his beloved wife, you’ll experience an honest look at a growing Christian whose quotes are still heard today, „God’s work done in God’s way will never lack God’s supply.” ; Running Time 85 minutes, A Ken Anderson Films Presentation.

alternative – HudsonTaylor English

Dr. David Livingstone – Missionary, Explorer and Discoverer of Uncharted Territory in 1800’s Africa

An inspirational  Christian biography to share with your family:

An introduction to David Livingstone from Ravi Zacharias (9 minutes) from LovingTheTruth1

Sometimes you wonder how God gives us desire for one subject matter, or another, while we attend school, and, how that eventually plays out in the trajectory of our lives, all under His sovereign plan for our lives. Dr. David Livingston loved science, to the chagrin of his father, who thought it could ruin his son’s faith. Yet, Dr. Livingstone’s science background, especially the fact that he was a medical doctor, was extremely valuable to him in his travels throughout Africa where malaria and dysentery was a regular occurrence . But, even more important was his love for geography, which fueled Dr. Livingstone’s desire to find the source of the River Nile; something which he failed to do, but it took him on journeys across a vast expanse of far off lands. How better to proclaim the Christ he believed in, and worshipped, than by traveling through a vast expanse of land in pursuit of a scientific quest. He did have some success as he  eventually charted some previously unknown lakes and river tributaries. (Also, see the second map in this article- it is a hand drawn map by Dr. Livingstone’s own hand, and it has amazing accuracy and precision when checked against later maps). One of the lesser known facts is that the same Mr. Stanley, a journalist who set to find out what happened to Dr. Livingstone in Africa, and who asked Dr. Livingston to please not try and convert him as he proclaimed to be ‘the biggest swaggering atheist on the face of the earth’, four month after meeting Dr. Livingstsone, knelt down on that african soil and gave his life to Jesus.

Dr. Livingstone’s Christian faith is evident in his journal, where one entry reads: „I place no value on anything I have or may possess, except in relation to the kingdom of Christ. If anything will advance the interests of the kingdom, it shall be given away or kept, only as by giving or keeping it I shall promote the glory of Him to whom I owe all my hopes in time and eternity.

Below, you will find some materials which are meant to inspire. They  show us the dedication and perseverance of a father of 6, who answered his calling in the 1800’s to be a missionary to Africa- Dr. David Livingstone of Blantyre, Scotland.

A 13 min documentary from the Scotland National Archives

The following are excerpts from Wikipedia:

David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873), was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation „Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

David_LivingstoneDavid Livingstone was born on 19 March 1813 in the mill town of Blantyre, in a tenement building for the workers of a cotton factory on the banks of the Clyde River under the bridge crossing into Bothwell, Lanarkshire, Scotland. He was the second of seven children born to Neil Livingstone (1788–1856) and his wife Agnes Hunter (1782–1865). Along with many of the Livingstones, David was at the age of ten employed in the cotton mill of H. Monteith & Co. in the village of Blantyre Works. David and his brother John worked twelve-hour days as „piecers,” tying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines. David Livingstone, the great African missionary and explorer, was a student at the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School. His medical studies extended from 1838 to 1840 and records show that he “paid the fees for the full course of medical practice, midwifery and botany.

Livingstone’s father Neil was very committed to his beliefs, a Sunday School teacher and teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a door to door tea salesman, and who read extensively books on theology, travel and missionary enterprises. This rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid reader, but he also loved scouring the countryside for animal, plant and geological specimens in local limestone quarries. Neil Livingstone had a fear of science books as undermining Christianity and attempted to force him to read nothing but theology, but David’s deep interest in nature and science led him to investigate the relationship between religion and science.[3] When in 1832 he read Philosophy of a Future State by the science teacher, amateur astronomer and church minister Thomas Dick, he found the rationale he needed to reconcile faith and science, and apart from theBible this book was perhaps his greatest philosophical influence.

Livingstone attended Blantyre village school along with the few other mill children with the endurance to do so despite their 12-hour workday (6 am–8 pm), but having a family with a strong, ongoing commitment to study also reinforced his education. After reading Gutzlaff’s appeal for medical missionaries for China in 1834, he began saving money and in 1836 entered Anderson’s College (now University of Strathclyde) in Glasgow, founded to bring science and technology to ordinary folk, and attended Greek and theology lectures at the University of Glasgow. It is now known that to enter Medical School he required some knowledge of Latin. A local Roman Catholic, Daniel Gallagher, helped him learn Latin to the required level.

In addition, he attended divinity lectures by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery campaigning in the city. Shortly after, he applied to join the London Missionary Society (LMS) and was accepted subject to missionary training. He continued his medical studies in London while training there and was attached to a church in Ongar, Essex, to be a minister under LMS. Despite his impressive personality, he was a plain preacher and would have been rejected by the LMS had not the director given him a second chance to pass the course.

Livingstone hoped to go to China as a missionary, but the First Opium War broke out in September 1839 and the LMS suggested the West Indies instead. In 1840, while continuing his medical studies in London, Livingstone met LMS missionary Robert Moffat, on leave from Kuruman, a missionary outpost in South Africa, north of the Orange River. Excited by Moffat’s vision of expanding missionary work northwards, and influenced by abolitionist T.F. Buxton’s arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of „legitimate trade” and the spread of Christianity, Livingstone focused his ambitions on Southern Africa. He was deeply influenced by Moffat’s judgment that he was the right person to go to the vast plains to the north of Bechuanaland, where he had glimpsed „the smoke of a thousand villages, where no missionary had ever been.”

Livingstone’s exploration-southern and central Africa

After the Kolobeng mission had to be closed because of drought, he explored the African interior to the north, in the period 1852–56, and was the first European to see the Mosi-oa-Tunya („the smoke that thunders”) waterfall (which he renamed Victoria Falls after his monarch, Queen Victoria), of which he wrote later, „Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight.” (Jeal, p. 149)

Livingstone was one of the first Westerners to make a transcontinental journey across Africa, Luanda on the Atlantic to Quelimane on the Indian Ocean near the mouth of the Zambezi, in 1854–56. Despite repeated European attempts, especially by the Portuguese, central and southern Africa had not been crossed by Europeans at that latitude owing to their susceptibility to malaria, dysentery and sleeping sickness which was prevalent in the interior and which also prevented use of draught animals (oxen and horses), as well as to the opposition of powerful chiefs and tribes. The qualities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantage as an explorer were that he usually travelled lightly, and he had an ability to reassure chiefs that he was not a threat.

Livingstone was a proponent of trade and Christian missions to be established in central Africa.

His motto, inscribed in the base of the statue to him at Victoria Falls, was „Christianity, Commerce and Civilization.” At this time he believed the key to achieving these goals was the navigation of the Zambezi River as a Christian commercial highway into the interior. He returned to Britain to try to garner support for his ideas, and to publish a book on his travels which brought him fame as one of the leading explorers of the age.

Believing he had a spiritual calling for exploration rather than mission work, and encouraged by the response in Britain to his discoveries and support for future expeditions, in 1857 he resigned from the London Missionary Society after they demanded that he do more evangelizing and less exploring. With the help of the Royal Geographical Society’s president, Livingstone was appointed as Her Majesty’s Consul for the East Coast of Africa.  Below-right: Dr. Livingstone’s hand drawn map of Lake Malawi (from Scotland’s National Archives)

David-Livingstones-MapIn January 1866, Livingstone returned to Africa, this time to Zanzibar, from where he set out to seek the source of the Nile. Richard Francis Burton, John Hanning Speke and Samuel Baker had (although there was still serious debate on the matter) identified either Lake Albert or Lake Victoria as the source (which was partially correct, as the Nile „bubbles from the ground high in the mountains of Burundi halfway between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria”). Livingstone believed the source was further south and assembled a team of freed slaves, Comoros Islanders, twelve Sepoys and two servants, Chuma and Susi, from his previous expedition to find it.

With his health declining he sent a message to Zanzibar requesting supplies be sent to Ujiji and he then headed west. Forced by ill health to travel with slave traders he arrived at Lake Mweru on 8 November 1867 and continued on, travelling south to become the first European to see Lake Bangweulu. Finding the Lualaba River, Livingstone mistakenly concluded it was the high part of the Nile River; in fact it flows into the River Congo at Upper Congo Lake.

The year 1869 began with Livingstone finding himself extremely ill whilst in the jungle. He was saved by Arab traders who gave him medicines and carried him to an Arab outpost. In March 1869 Livingstone, suffering from pneumonia, arrived in Ujiji to find his supplies stolen. Coming down with cholera and tropical ulcers on his feet he was again forced to rely on slave traders to get him as far as Bambara where he was caught by the wet season. With no supplies, Livingstone had to eat his meals in a roped off open enclosure for the entertainment of the locals in return for food.

On 15 July 1871, according to Livingstone’s recently released original handwritten diaries, while he was visiting the town of Nyangwe on the banks of the Lualaba River, he witnessed around 400 Africans being massacred by slavers. The massacre horrified Livingstone, leaving him too shattered to continue his mission to find the source of the Nile. Following the end of the wet season, he travelled 240 miles from Nyangwe – violently ill most of the way – back to Ujiji, an Arab settlement on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, arriving on 23 October 1871.

Geographical discoveries

Although Livingstone was wrong about the Nile, he discovered for Western science numerous geographical features, such as Lake Ngami, Lake Malawi, and Lake Bangweulu in addition to Victoria Falls mentioned above. He filled in details of Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru and the course of many rivers, especially the upper Zambezi, and his observations enabled large regions to be mapped which previously had been blank. Even so, the furthest north he reached, the north end of Lake Tanganyika, was still south of the Equator and he did not penetrate the rainforest of the River Congo any further downstream than Ntangwe near Misisi.

Livingstone was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London and was made a Fellow of the society, with which he had a strong association for the rest of his life.

Stanley meeting

Henry Morton Stanley meets David Livingstone.  Henry Morton Stanley, who had been sent to find him by the New York Herald newspaper in 1869, found Livingstone in the town of Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika on 10 November 1871, greeting him with the now famous words „Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” to which he responded „Yes”, and then „I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you.” These famous words may have been a fabrication, as Stanley later tore out the pages of this encounter in his diary. Even Livingstone’s account of this encounter does not mention these words. However, the phrase appears in a New York Herald editorial dated 10 August 1872, and theEncyclopædia Britannica and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography both quote it without questioning its veracity. The words are famous because of their perceived tongue-in-cheek humorous nature: Dr. Livingstone was the only white person for hundreds of miles. Stanley’s book suggests that it was really because of embarrassment, because he did not dare to embrace him.

Despite Stanley’s urgings, Livingstone was determined not to leave Africa until his mission was complete. His illness made him confused and he had judgment difficulties at the end of his life. He explored the Lualaba and, failing to find connections to the Nile, returned to Lake Bangweulu and its swamps to explore possible rivers flowing out northwards.

Death

David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo’s village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, „You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!”. Livingstone’s heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of theLivingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row—then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes— his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey, London.

Legacy

By the late 1860s Livingstone’s reputation in Europe had suffered owing to the failure of the missions he set up, and of the Zambezi Expedition; and his ideas about the source of the Nile were not supported. His expeditions were hardly models of order and organization. His reputation was rehabilitated by Stanley and his newspaper, and by the loyalty of Livingstone’s servants whose long journey with his body inspired wonder. The publication of his last journal revealed stubborn determination in the face of suffering.

He had made geographical discoveries for European knowledge. He inspired abolitionists of the slave trade, explorers and missionaries. He opened up Central Africa to missionaries who initiated the education and health care for Africans, and trade by the African Lakes Company. He was held in some esteem by many African chiefs and local people and his name facilitated relations between them and the British.

Partly as a result, within fifty years of his death, colonial rule was established in Africa and white settlement was encouraged to extend further into the interior.

On the other hand, within a further fifty years after that, two other aspects of his legacy paradoxically helped end the colonial era in Africa without excessive bloodshed. Livingstone was part of an evangelical and nonconformist movement in Britain which during the 19th century changed the national mindset from the notion of a divine right to rule ‘lesser races’, to ethical ideas in foreign policy which, with other factors, contributed to the end of the British Empire. Secondly, Africans educated in mission schools founded by people inspired by Livingstone were at the forefront of national independence movements in central, eastern and southern Africa.

While Livingstone had a great impact on British Imperialism, he did so at a tremendous cost to his family. In his absences, his children grew up missing their father, and his wife Mary (daughter of Mary and Robert Moffat) endured very poor health, and died of malaria trying to follow him in Africa. He had six children: Robert reportedly died in the American Civil War; Agnes (b.1847), Thomas, Elizabeth (who died two months after her birth), William Oswell (nicknamed Zouga because of the river along which he was born, in 1851) and Anna Mary (b.1858). Only Agnes, William Oswell and Anna Mary married and had children.

His one regret in later life was that he did not spend enough time with his children, whom he loved immensely

His Christian faith is evident in his journal, where one entry reads: „I place no value on anything I have or may possess, except in relation to the kingdom of Christ. If anything will advance the interests of the kingdom, it shall be given away or kept, only as by giving or keeping it I shall promote the glory of Him to whom I owe all my hopes in time and eternity.

The archives of David Livingstone are maintained by the Archives of the University of Glasgow (GUAS). On November, 11, 2011, Dr. Livingstone’s 1871 Field Diary, as well as other original works, was published online for the first time by the „David Livingstone Spectral Imaging Project – a unique, eighteen-month, transatlantic collaboration between scholars, scientists and educational and archival institutions

A good book detailing the lives of both

Henry Morgan Stanley & Dr. David Livingstone

I found the talk as fascinating as Dr. Livingston’s story, as the author recounted his own trek to the roads and places that Dr. Livingstone once walked. It helped create a picture of the dangers that Dr. Livingstone and Stanley lived on a daily basis- some dangers that are obviously still encountered in the present, as Mr. Dugard says- Africa is this still vast deserted expanse in many places.

You can watch the 44 minute C span video of a talk at Vroman’s Bookstore, where Mr.Dugard discussed his book Into Africa: The Epic Adventures of Stanley and Livingstone, published by Doubleday. The book tells the story of journalist Henry Morton Stanley’s journey into Africa in the hopes of locating explorer and former Christian missionary Dr. David Livingstone. In 1866, in the midst of an exploratory mission into central Africa, Dr. Livingstone vanished without a clue. After years passed without any indication of Livingstone’s fate, an American newspaper publisher sent Stanley on a mission to locate Dr. Livingstone in the hopes that such a captivating story would increase readership. Mr. Dugard tells the stories of both Livingstone and Stanley and chronicles their respective lives in the years after leaving Africa. After his presentation Mr. Dugard answered questions from members of the audience. Click here to watch C span’s video – http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/176539-1

And here’s a 13 minute clip from the Dr. David Livingstone movie (it is available at Amazon for instant download)

AUDIO BOOK

How I found Dr. David Livingstone

by Henry Morton Stanley

17 audio chapters

Free Online Book – Adoniram Johnson

 

Adoniram Johnson – missionary to Burma 1813  – 1849 click on photo for article from http://urbanchristiannews.com

Adoniram Judson by John Piper

How Few There Are Who Die So Hard

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Click here or on book at right for link to pdf.

via http://www.desiringGod.org

Excerpt

„Are you sure that God wants you to continue your life in this comparatively church-saturated land? Or might he be calling you to fill up what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ, to fall like a grain of wheat into some distant ground and die, to hate your life in this world and so to keep it forever and bear much fruit?” (p. 21).

About the Book

Earnestly consider your role in completing the Great Commission.

That was John Piper’s overarching plea when he delivered a biographical message on Adoniram Judson in 2003.

Judson was America’s first foreign missionary and an example of one who considered, and executed on, his own uniquely strategic role in the completing of the Commission.

Though warned not to go to Burma, he entered the country almost 200 years ago — in July of 1813 — and there invested the next 38 years of his life preaching Christ where he had not been named.

And the cost was very high. But in God’s perfect economy, his suffering had a plain purpose. As Piper explains, „I am persuaded from Scripture and from the history of missions that God’s design for the evangelization of the world and the consummation of his purposes includes the suffering of his ministers and missionaries.”

Originally an address to pastors, Piper’s biography of Judson is now available in a short e-book that leads us to ask the same challenging question, „Might God be calling you to fill up what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ, to fall like a grain of wheat into some distant ground and die, to hate your life in this world and so to keep it forever and bear much fruit?”

An EPUB file is formatted for readers like the Nook, Sony Reader, and Apple iBooks (iPad, iPhone, iPod). A MOBI file is formatted for Kindle applications (this option works well on some mobile devices, and not so well on others).

 

Through the Gates of Splendor – 5 missionaries speared to death on January 8, 1956 on a beach in Ecuador (documentary)

A beautifully crafted documentary about five young missionaries who were martyred by a savage tribe of Indians in the mid 1950s and the heroic effort of reconciliation that has followed.

The killing of five missionaries in the Amazon jungle captured the attention of a nation and prompted one of the widows to write the best-selling Through Gates of Splendor. But what would remain untold for a half a century is the incredible response to these deaths. Beyond the Gates of Splendor, a stirring documentary by director Jim Hanon and producer Mart Green, brings this story to life. The film traces friendships forming on a Midwest college campus, young families venturing out to the South American mission field, and the heartbreak of a bloody beach in Ecuador. Five lives taken by the most violent tribe on earth. The tragedy compels several of the women to risk their lives, and those of their children, to live alongside their husbands’ killers. Through the example of these brave women, a brutal, warring culture is transformed, murderers become healers, and what was once known as the cradle of darkness becomes a community of light and hope.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Related articles

David Platt – 2010 Global Ministries Conference, Multnomah University, Portland, Oregon

David Platt, one of the youngest Pastors and missionaries in the United States, and a follower of Christ and Christ’s complete teachings as well as a humble and gifted (with the Holy Spirit) preacher. You can also click on the link below the video to look at some recent videos from his missionary trip to India a few weeks back.

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David Platt – 2010 Global Ministries Conference, posted with vodpod

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